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AIMS Chronic heart failure (CHF) causes inspiratory (diaphragm) muscle weakness and fatigue that contributes to dyspnoea and limited physical capacity in patients. However, the mechanisms that lead to diaphragm dysfunction in CHF remain poorly understood. Cytokines and angiotensin II are elevated in CHF and stimulate the activity of the enzyme(More)
Diaphragm muscle weakness in chronic heart failure (CHF) is caused by elevated oxidants and exacerbates breathing abnormalities, exercise intolerance, and dyspnea. However, the specific source of oxidants that cause diaphragm weakness is unknown. We examined whether mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause diaphragm weakness in CHF by testing the(More)
Obesity increases linearly with age and is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. MRs (mineralocorticoid receptors) contribute to impaired vascular endothelial function in cardiovascular disease; however, their role in uncomplicated human obesity is unknown. Because plasma aldosterone levels are(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is especially high in older adults. Metabolic syndrome is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function, insulin resistance, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Plasma aldosterone is independently associated with metabolic syndrome and(More)
Arterial stiffness, an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, is increased in aging, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) may contribute to oxidative stress and arterial stiffness in healthy older adults. To test the hypothesis that short-term MR blockade may reduce oxidative stress and(More)
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation by aldosterone may regulate vascular function in health or contribute to vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Whether the effects are beneficial or detrimental to vascular function appear to be dependent on the integrity of the vascular endothelium and whether the responses are short-term or chronic.(More)
There is growing evidence of sex differences in the chronic effect of aerobic exercise on endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) in older adults, but whether there are sex differences also in the acute effect of aerobic exercise on FMD in older adults is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sex modulates the FMD(More)
Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18-79 years; body(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic heart failure (HF; 16 weeks post left coronary artery ligation) on the brain's orexin (ORX) and related neuropeptide systems. METHODS Indicators of cardiac function, including the percent fractional shortening (%FS) left ventricular posterior wall shortening velocity (LVPWSV) were(More)
Although doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anti-tumour agent used to treat a variety of cancers, DOX administration is associated with significant side effects, including myopathy of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. The mechanisms responsible for DOX-mediated myopathy remain a topic of debate. We tested the hypothesis that both increased(More)