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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Most agronomical traits exhibit quantitative variation, which is controlled by multiple genes and are environmentally dependent. To study the genetic variation of flowering time in Brassica napus, a DH population and its derived reconstructed F(2) population were planted in 11 field environments. The flowering time varied greatly with environments; 60% of(More)
The vanilloid receptor (VR1) protein functions both as a receptor for capsaicin and a transducer of noxious thermal stimuli. To determine the expression and targetting of this protein, we have generated antisera against both the amino and carboxy termini of VR1. Within the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of rats, VR1-immunoreactivity (VR1-ir) was(More)
Plants that contain high concentrations of the defense compounds of the phenylpropene class (eugenol, chavicol, and their derivatives) have been recognized since antiquity as important spices for human consumption (e.g. cloves) and have high economic value. Our understanding of the biosynthetic pathway that produces these compounds in the plant, however,(More)
Left ventricular remodeling is a major cause of progressive heart failure and death after myocardial infarction. Although neoangiogenesis within the infarcted tissue is an integral component of the remodeling process, the capillary network is unable to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied myocardium, resulting in progressive loss of viable(More)
The extracellular signals which regulate the myogenic program are transduced to the nucleus by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). We have investigated the role of two MAPKs, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whose activities undergo significant changes during muscle differentiation. p38 is rapidly activated in myocytes induced to(More)
A multilocus stochastic model is developed to simulate the dynamics of mutational load in small populations of various sizes. Old mutations sampled from a large ancestral population at mutation-selection balance and new mutations arising each generation are considered jointly, using biologically plausible lethal and deleterious mutation parameters. The(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) calculated from diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance (MR) images can be used to characterize head and neck lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T MR unit in 97 head and neck lesions in 97 patients. Images were(More)
A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1, caused disease outbreaks in poultry in China and seven other east Asian countries between late 2003 and early 2004; the same virus was fatal to humans in Thailand and Vietnam. Here we demonstrate a series of genetic reassortment events traceable to the precursor of the H5N1 viruses that caused the initial(More)
Sodium homeostasis in terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates is controlled by the corticosteroid hormones, principally aldosterone, which stimulate electrogenic Na+ absorption in tight epithelia. Although aldosterone is known to increase apical membrane Na+ permeability in target cells through changes in gene transcription, the mechanistic basis of this(More)