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Aspiration efficiencies from nose and mouth inhalations are investigated at low and high inhalation rates by using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software CFX 11. A realistic human head with detailed facial features was constructed. Facial features were matched to represent the 50th percentile of a human male, aged between 20 and 65 years(More)
Nasal physiology is dependent on the physical structure of the nose. Individual aspects of the nasal cavity such as the geometry and flow rate collectively affect nasal function such as the filtration of foreign particles by bringing inspired air into contact with mucous-coated walls, humidifying and warming the air before it enters the lungs and the sense(More)
Most of the cardiac abnormalities have an implication on hemodynamics and affect cardiovascular health. Diagnostic imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent anatomical information on myocardial structures, but fail to show the cardiac flow and detect heart defects in vivo condition. The computerized(More)
In this study, the flow dynamics of vitreous due to saccadic movements following vitreous liquefaction or in post-vitrectomy eyes is investigated. Using a dynamic mesh technique, the eye motion was modeled and unsteady three-dimensional forms of continuity and Navier-Stokes equations were solved numerically. Firstly, the numerical model was validated for a(More)
Anatomically precise geometric models of human airways and arterial vessels play a critical role in the analysis of air and blood flows in human bodies. The established geometric modelling methods become invalid when the model consists of bronchioles or small vessels. This paper presents a new method for reconstructing the entire airway tree and carotid(More)
Effective management of asthma is dependent on achieving adequate delivery of the drugs into the lung. Inhalers come in the form of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) with the former requiring a deep fast breath for activation while there are no restrictions on inhalation rates for the latter. This study investigates two aerosol(More)
Experimental images from particle/droplet image analyser (PDIA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging techniques of particle formation from a nasal spray device were taken to determine critical parameters for the study and design of effective nasal drug delivery devices. The critical parameters found were particle size, diameter of spray cone at a(More)
BACKGROUND To evaluate the deposition efficiency of spray droplets in a nasal cavity produced from a spray device, it is important to determine droplet size distribution, velocity, and its dispersion during atomization. Due to the limiting geometric dimensions of the nasal cavity airway, the spray plume cannot develop to its full size inside the nasal(More)
Effective nasal drug delivery of new-generation systemic drugs requires efficient devices that can achieve targeted drug delivery. It has been established that droplet size, spray plume, and droplet velocity are major contributors to drug deposition. Continual effort is needed to better understand and characterise the physical mechanisms underpinning(More)
The nasal route presents an enormous opportunity to exploit the highly vascularized respiratory airway for systemic drug delivery to provide more rapid onset of therapy and reduced drug degradation compared with conventional oral routes. The dynamics of atomization at low injection pressure is less known as typical spray atomization studies have focused on(More)