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Although cell migration is crucial for neural development, molecular mechanisms guiding neuronal migration have remained unclear. Here we report that the secreted protein Slit repels neuronal precursors migrating from the anterior subventricular zone in the telencephalon to the olfactory bulb. Our results provide a direct demonstration of a molecular cue(More)
In this study, our goal was to evaluate the role of starch debranching enzymes in the determination of the structure of amylopectin. We screened mutant populations of Arabidopsis for plants with alterations in the structure of leaf starch by using iodine staining. The leaves of two mutant lines stained reddish brown, whereas wild-type leaves stained(More)
genetic factors underlying common disease are largely unknown. Discovery of disease-causing genes will transform our knowledge of the genetic contribution to human disease, lead to new genetic screens, and underpin research into new cures and improved lifestyles. The se-quencing of the human genome has catalyzed efforts to search for disease genes by the(More)
Arrestins are soluble cytoplasmic proteins that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors, thus switching off activation of the G protein and terminating the signalling pathway that triggers the cellular response. Although visual arrestin has been shown to quench the catalytic activity of photoexcited, phosphorylated rhodopsin in a reconstituted system, its role(More)
The retina's photoreceptor cells adjust their sensitivity to allow photons to be transduced over a wide range of light intensities. One mechanism thought to participate in sensitivity adjustments is Ca(2+) regulation of guanylate cyclase (GC) by guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). We evaluated the contribution of GCAPs to sensitivity regulation(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrow derived-marrow stromal cells (MSCs) enter the brain and reduce neurological functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats (n=32) were subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Test groups consisted of MCAO alone (group 1, n=6);(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effect of i.v.-injected human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) on neurologic functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and IV injected with 3 x 10(6) hMSC 1 day after stroke. Functional outcome was measured before and 1, 7, and 14 days after stroke. Mixed(More)
Cocaine enhances dopamine-mediated neurotransmission by blocking dopamine re-uptake at axon terminals. Most dopamine-containing nerve terminals innervate medium spiny neurons in the striatum of the brain. Cocaine addiction is thought to stem, in part, from neural adaptations that act to maintain equilibrium by countering the effects of repeated drug(More)
Acute exposure to cocaine transiently induces several Fos family transcription factors in the nucleus accumbens, a region of the brain that is important for addiction. In contrast, chronic exposure to cocaine does not induce these proteins, but instead causes the persistent expression of highly stable isoforms of deltaFosB. deltaFosB is also induced in the(More)
Phosphorylation is thought to be an essential first step in the prompt deactivation of photoexcited rhodopsin. In vitro, the phosphorylation can be catalyzed either by rhodopsin kinase (RK) or by protein kinase C (PKC). To investigate the specific role of RK, we inactivated both alleles of the RK gene in mice. This eliminated the light-dependent(More)