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We study the probability density function for the fluctuations of the magnetic order parameter in the low-temperature phase of the XY model of finite size. In two dimensions, this system is critical over the whole of the low-temperature phase. It is shown analytically and without recourse to the scaling hypothesis that, in this case, the distribution is(More)
  • L J W Ha€enden, V A Yaylayan, J Fortin
  • 2001
Vibrational theory of olfaction was investigated with the following three labelled analogues of benzaldehyde; 13 C 6 (ring)-benzal-dehyde, 13 CHO-benzaldehyde and benzaldehyde-d 6. Sensory analysis, by a trained panel of 30 subjects, using a duo-trio test, showed that the benzaldehyde-d 6 gave a statistically signi®cant di€erence in odour perception(More)
Starting from a master equation, we derive the evolution equation for the size distribution of elements in an evolving system, where each element can grow, divide into two, and produce new elements. We then probe general solutions of the evolution equation, to obtain such skew distributions as power-law, log-normal, and Weibull distributions, depending on(More)
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