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We study the probability density function for the fluctuations of the magnetic order parameter in the low-temperature phase of the XY model of finite size. In two dimensions, this system is critical over the whole of the low-temperature phase. It is shown analytically and without recourse to the scaling hypothesis that, in this case, the distribution is(More)
The LiHoxY1-xF4 magnetic material in a transverse magnetic field Bx x perpendicular to the Ising spin direction has long been used to study tunable quantum phase transitions in a random disordered system. We show that the Bx-induced magnetization along the x direction, combined with the local random dilution-induced destruction of crystalline symmetries,(More)
Starting from a master equation, we derive the evolution equation for the size distribution of elements in an evolving system, where each element can grow, divide into two, and produce new elements. We then probe general solutions of the evolution equation, to obtain such skew distributions as power-law, log-normal, and Weibull distributions, depending on(More)
We apply the dynamic model for failures to a living organism under periodic stress and study how the health status of the organism evolves. It is found that without healing, the average fraction of intact cells decays either stepwise to zero or to a constant value far from zero, depending on the peak value of the periodic stress. As the parameter measuring(More)
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