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The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) microinjection into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the nucleus raphe dorsalis (NRD) on tonic pain were studied using the monosodium urate (MSU) tonic pain model in the rat. For the NRM, 5-HT microinjection produced significant analgesic effects, which were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration and also(More)
BACKGROUND While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 32 cases of osteosarcoma and 20 normal controls were separated and induced by lipopolysaccharide, followed by 48 hour incubation in vitro, then the supernatant were collected. The levels of IL-6 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the concentrations of NO were measured by Griess methods. The results(More)
L-glutamic acid, bicuculline (a GABA receptor antagonist), lidocaine and GABA were injected into entopeduncular and habenular nuclei respectively in rats. Pain threshold was measured by the latency of avoidance response (tail-flick) elicited by radiant heat exposure before and after intracerebral injection. Microinjection of different concentration of(More)
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