J. William Higgins

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Although organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated hepatic uptake is generally conserved between rodents and humans at a gross pharmacokinetic level, the presence of three major hepatic OATPs with broad overlap in substrate and inhibitor affinity, and absence of rodent-human orthologs preclude clinical translation of single-gene(More)
High-dose ketoconazole (400 mg q.d. for ≥5 days) has been the gold-standard strong cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitor in drug development drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies. In 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) advised against using this ketoconazole regimen following review of clinical safety(More)
Transporter gene knockout rats are practically advantageous over murine models for pharmacokinetic and excretion studies, but their phenotypic characterization is lacking. At present, relevant aspects of pharmacokinetics, metabolism, distribution, and excretion of transporter probes [P-glycoprotein (P-gp): loperamide and paclitaxel; breast cancer resistance(More)
Pemetrexed, an anionic anticancer drug with a narrow therapeutic index, is eliminated mainly by active renal tubular secretion. The in vitro to in vivo extrapolation approach used in this work was developed to predict possible drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may occur after coadministration of pemetrexed and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),(More)
Organic cation transporter (OCT)1 and OCT2 mediate hepatic uptake and secretory renal clearance of metformin, respectively. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) implications of simultaneous impairment of both transporters, such as by systemic pan-OCT inhibition, have not been studied directly. At present metformin PK/PD, distribution, and excretion were(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) enables long-term suppression of plasma HIV-1 loads in infected persons, but low-level virus persists and rebounds following cessation of therapy. During HAART, this virus resides in latently infected cells, such as resting CD4(+) T cells, and in other cell types that may support residual virus replication.(More)
Drug-resistant mutants with a methionine-to-valine substitution at position 184 of reverse transcriptase (M184V) emerged within 5 weeks of initiation of therapy in four newborn macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) and treated with lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine [(-)-FTC] (two animals per drug). Thus, this animal model mimics(More)
We have modeled highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS in rhesus macaques infected with a chimera (RT-SHIV) of simian immunodeficiency virus containing reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Seven RT-SHIV-infected macaques were treated with a combination of efavirenz (200 mg orally once daily), lamivudine (8(More)
UNLABELLED Measuring depression among persons with stroke faces many challenges; diagnostic tools are lengthy and do not measure the extent of depression; screening tools are not stroke-specific; and metrics from the available indices do not provide a value that is mathematically or clinically meaningful. PURPOSE To provide evidence for the development of(More)