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The US is currently experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine (Meth) use as a recreational drug. Recent studies also show a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection among Meth users. We report that Meth enhances HIV-1 infectivity of dendritic cells as measured by multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator (MAGI) cell assay, p24 assay, and LTR-RU5(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that infection with HIV-1 clades might differentially contribute to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). HIV-1 transactivator regulatory protein (Tat) plays a major role in the process of disruption of neuronal function. It is not well understood how these HIV-1 subtypes exert different neuropathogenic(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition has been described as the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP)-evoked toxicity. OPs represent a human health threat, because chronic exposure to low doses can damage the developing brain, and acute exposure can produce long-lasting damage to adult brains, despite post-exposure medical countermeasures. Although the(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol is the most widely abused substance and its chronic consumption causes neurobehavioral disorders. It has been shown that alcohol affects the function of immune cells. Dendritic cells (DC) serve as the first line of defense against infections and are known to accumulate neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The enzyme(More)
INTRODUCTION A cross sectional study was conducted from 2002-2004 to record the evolution of HIV-1 infection in Puerto Rico by monitoring the expression of antiretroviral resistance-associated mutations. METHODS Samples were analyzed by using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene DNA Sequencing System. RESULTS Mutations in the HIV-1 virus(More)
The first study aimed at determining the structural characteristics needed to prepare antibacterial 2-alkynoic fatty acids (2-AFAs) was accomplished by synthesizing several 2-AFAs and other analogs in 18-76% overall yields. Among all the compounds tested, the 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA) displayed the best overall antibacterial activity against Gram-positive(More)
The existence of multiple subtypes of HIV-1 worldwide has created new challenges to control HIV-1 infection and associated neuropathogenesis. Previous studies indicate a difference in neuropathogenic manifestations of HIV-1-associated neuroAIDS between clade B- and clade C-infected subjects with clade B being more neuropathogenic than clade C. However, the(More)
Childhood cancer has been increasing significantly over the past two decades in the United States, suggesting that environmental exposures may be playing a causative role. One such cause may be maternal smoking during pregnancy. Suspected carcinogens in cigarette smoke and environmental pollution include N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,(More)
The first total synthesis of a C5-curcumin-2-hexadecynoic acid (C5-Curc-2-HDA, 6) conjugate was successfully performed. Through a three-step synthetic route, conjugate 6 was obtained in 13% overall yield and tested for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Our results revealed that 6 was active against(More)
Polymorphic expression of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC may be a differential risk factor in metabolic activation of arylamine carcinogens and susceptibility to cancers related to arylamine exposures. Human epidemiological studies suggest that rapid acetylator phenotype may be associated with higher incidences of colorectal cancer. We used(More)