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Statistical procedures for missing data have vastly improved, yet misconception and unsound practice still abound. The authors frame the missing-data problem, review methods, offer advice, and raise issues that remain unresolved. They clear up common misunderstandings regarding the missing at random (MAR) concept. They summarize the evidence against older(More)
This review presents a practical summary of the missing data literature, including a sketch of missing data theory and descriptions of normal-model multiple imputation (MI) and maximum likelihood methods. Practical missing data analysis issues are discussed, most notably the inclusion of auxiliary variables for improving power and reducing bias. Solutions(More)
Missing data are pervasive in alcohol and drug abuse prevention evaluation efforts: Researchers administer surveys, and some items are left un-answered. Slow readers often leave large portions incomplete at the end of the survey. Researchers administer the surveys at several points in time, and people fail to show up at one or more waves of measurement.(More)
This article illustrates the use of latent transition analysis (LTA), a methodology for testing stage-sequential models of individual growth. LTA is an outgrowth of latent class theory and is a particular type of latent Markov model emphasizing the use of multiple manifest indicators. LTA is used to compare the fit of two models of early adolescent(More)
This article explores the impact of the temporal design, i.e. the sampling of times of measurement, on the statistical and substantive conclusions drawn from longitudinal biomedical and social science research. It is shown that for a study of a given duration, if observations are spaced too far apart the resulting data can support misleading conclusions,(More)
The authors describe 2 efficiency (planned missing data) designs for measurement: the 3-form design and the 2-method measurement design. The 3-form design, a kind of matrix sampling, allows researchers to leverage limited resources to collect data for 33% more survey questions than can be answered by any 1 respondent. Power tables for estimating correlation(More)
Evaluations of psychological interventions are often criticized because of differential attrition, which is cited as a severe threat to validity. The present study shows that differential attrition is not a problem unless the mechanism causing the attrition is inaccessible (unavailable for analysis). With a simulation study, we show that conclusions about(More)
Outcome research has shown that drug prevention programs based on theories of social influence often prevent the onset of adolescent drug use. However, little is known empirically about the processes through which they have their effects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate intervening mechanism theories of two program models for preventing the(More)
Social influence is central to models of adolescent substance use. Nonetheless, researchers fail to delineate the various forms of social influence. A framework that distinguishes between active (explicit drug offers) and passive (social modeling and overestimation of friends' use) social pressure was tested. The effect of these processes on alcohol and(More)
In this study, the authors compared group members' and group outsiders' susceptibility to the influence of their friends' smoking. Ss were nonsmokers in Grade 7 who were observed for 1 year. Consistent with their hypothesis, the authors found that group outsiders (Ss who did not have reciprocal friends) were affected more by the smoking of their best friend(More)