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MOTIVATION Molecular biotechnology now makes it possible to build elaborate systems models, but the systems biology community needs information standards if models are to be shared, evaluated and developed cooperatively. RESULTS We summarize the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 1, a free, open, XML-based format for representing biochemical(More)
The Climate Forecast System (CFS), the fully coupled ocean-land-atmosphere dynamical seasonal prediction system that became operational at NCEP in August 2004, is described and evaluated in this paper. The CFS provides important advances in operational seasonal prediction on a number of fronts. For the first time in the history of U.S. operational seasonal(More)
The subgradient method is frequently used to optimize dual functions in Lagrangian relaxation for separable integer programming problems. In the method, all subproblems must be optimally solved to obtain a subgradient direction. In this paper, the " surrogate subgradient method " is developed, where a proper direction can be obtained without optimally(More)
Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN properties were measured on the Department of Energy Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the Marine Stra-tus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) conducted over the coastal waters between Point Reyes National Seashore and Monterey Bay, California, in July 2005. Aerosols measured during MASE included free tropospheric(More)
The ipt gene from the T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in order to study the control which auxin appears to exert over levels of cytokinin generated by expression of this gene. The transgenic tissues contained elevated levels of cytokinins, exhibited cytokinin and auxin autonomy and grew as shooty calli on(More)
In order to ensure convergence to the viscosity solution, the standard method for discretizing HJB PDEs uses forward/backward differencing for the drift term. In this paper, we devise a monotone method which uses central weighting as much as possible. In order to solve the discretized algebraic equations, we have to maximize a possibly discontinuous(More)
Aerosol microphysics, chemical composition, and CCN concentrations were measured at the T0 urban super-site in Mexico City during Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) in March 2006. The aerosol size distribution and composition often showed strong diurnal variation associated with traffic emissions and aging of aerosols(More)