J . W . T . Chalmers

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BACKGROUND Law and policy in several countries require health services to demonstrate that they are promoting racial/ethnic equality. However, suitable and accurate data are usually not available. We demonstrated, using acute myocardial infarction, that linkage techniques can be ethical and potentially useful for this purpose. METHODS The linkage was(More)
BACKGROUND Centile charts of birthweight for gestational age are used to identify low birthweight babies. The charts currently used in Scotland are based on data from the 1970s and require updating given changes in birthweight and in the measurement of gestational age since then. METHODS Routinely collected data of 100,133 singleton births occurring in(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the degree to which changing patterns of deprivation in Scotland and the rest of Great Britain between 1981 and 2001 explain Scotland's higher mortality rates over that period. DESIGN Cross-sectional analyses using population and mortality data from around the 1981, 1991 and 2001 censuses. SETTING Great Britain (GB). (More)
OBJECTIVE To determine neonatal outcomes (perinatal mortality and special care unit admission) and maternal outcomes (mode of delivery, delivery complications) of elective induction of labour compared with expectant management. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using an unselected population database. SETTING Consultant and midwife led obstetric units(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare international trends in pre-eclampsia rates and in overall pregnancy hypertension rates (including gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). DESIGN Population data (from birth and/or hospital records) on all women giving birth were available from Australia (two states), Canada (Alberta),(More)
OBJECTIVES We tested the hypotheses that the effect of gender on short-term case fatality following a first admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) varies with age, and that this effect is offset by differences in the proportion of men and women who survive to reach hospital. BACKGROUND Evidence is conflicting regarding the effect of gender on(More)
We have reviewed 106 patients after treatment for spontaneous rupture of the calcaneal tendon, and assessed the clinical results including the power of plantarflexion. In patients treated within 48 hours of injury the result was very similar in conservatively and in operatively treated patients. The incidence of major complications was higher after(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyse short- and long-term case-fatality trends following admission to hospital with a first acute myocardial infarction, in men and women between 1986 and 1995, after adjusting for risk factors known to influence survival. DESIGN A Scottish-wide retrospective cohort study. SETTING The Linked Scottish Morbidity Record Database was(More)
AIM Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a common and sight-threatening condition. The reported incidence of RRD has varied considerably in published literature and few studies have examined the temporal trends in incidence rate over a long time period. Our aim is to examine the time trends of primary RRD in Scotland. METHODS We obtained linked(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral palsy seems to be more common in term babies whose birthweight is low for their gestational age at delivery, but past analyses have been hampered by small datasets and Z-score calculation methods. METHODS We compared data from ten European registers for 4503 singleton children with cerebral palsy born between 1976 and 1990 with the(More)