J. W. Spalding

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Four widely used in vitro assays for genetic toxicity were evaluated for their ability to predict the carcinogenicity of selected chemicals in rodents. These assays were mutagenesis in Salmonella and mouse lymphoma cells and chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seventy-three chemicals recently tested in(More)
Cancer is a worldwide public health concern. Identifying carcinogens and limiting their exposure is one approach to the problem of reducing risk. Currently, epidemiology and rodent bioassays are the means by which putative human carcinogens are identified. Both methods have intrinsic limitations: they are slow and expensive processes with many(More)
This report describes the activities of 168 chemicals tested in a standard transformation assay using A-31-1-13 BALB/c-3T3 cells. The data set includes 84 carcinogens, 77 noncarcinogens, and 7 research chemicals. Carcinogens included 49 mutagens and 35 nonmutagens; noncarcinogens included 24 mutagens and 53 nonmutagens. The transformation assay did not use(More)
The results of a recent comprehensive evaluation of the relationship between four measures of in vitro genetic toxicity and the capacity of the chemicals to induce neoplasia in rodents carry some important implications. The results showed that while the Salmonella mutagenesis assay detected only about half of the carcinogens as mutagens, the other three in(More)
The effect of the corticosteroid fluocinolone acetonide (FA) on skin tumor induction and inflammation by the contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was examined. This study broadly relates to the question of whether contact sensitizers, as electrophilic chemicals that produce protein adduction, may constitute an environmental cancer hazard. The(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in humans and in rodents. These drugs are believed to act by inhibiting one or both of the known isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX). However, COX-2, and not COX-1, is the isoform most frequently reported to have a key role in tumor development. Here we report that homozygous(More)
Analysis of somatic mutations of the p53 gene in human cancers: A tool to generate hypotheses about the natural history of cancer T. Hernandez-Boussard, R. Montesano and P. Hainaut Mutations in ras genes in experimental tumours of rodents Use of non-mammalian species in bioassays for carcinogenicity T.E. Bunton Chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in(More)
Thirty chemicals or substances currently undergoing long-term carcinogenicity bioassays in rodents have been used in a project to further evaluate methods and information that may have the capability of predicting potential carcinogens. In our predictions the principal information used includes structural alerts and in vitro test results for Salmonella(More)
This report introduces an improved method of detecting chemical-induced morphological transformation of A-31-1-13 BALB/c-3T3 cells. The new procedure uses an increased target cell population to assess chemical-induced damage by increasing the initial seeding density and by delaying the initiation time of chemical treatment. Furthermore, a newly developed(More)