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Four widely used in vitro assays for genetic toxicity were evaluated for their ability to predict the carcinogenicity of selected chemicals in rodents. These assays were mutagenesis in Salmonella and mouse lymphoma cells and chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seventy-three chemicals recently tested in(More)
Although numerous epidemiological studies have shown that inorganic arsenicals cause skin cancers and hyperkeratoses in humans, there are currently no established mechanisms for their action or animal models. Previous studies in our laboratory using primary human keratinocyte cultures demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of inorganic arsenite(More)
Although numerous epidemiological studies have shown that inorganic arsenicals are human skin carcinogens, there is currently no accepted mechanism for its action or an established animal model for its study. We observed increased mRNA transcripts and secretion of keratinocyte growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor(More)
Transgenic rodent models have emerged as potentially useful tools in the assessment of drug and chemical safety. The transgenic Tg.AC mouse carries an inducible v-Ha-ras oncogene that imparts the characteristic of genetically initiated skin to these animals. The induction of epidermal papillomas in the area of topically applied chemical agents, for duration(More)
Cancer is a worldwide public health concern. Identifying carcinogens and limiting their exposure is one approach to the problem of reducing risk. Currently, epidemiology and rodent bioassays are the means by which putative human carcinogens are identified. Both methods have intrinsic limitations: they are slow and expensive processes with many(More)
This paper was written to enable evaluation of the concept that knowledge about chemical structure combined with limited short-term genotoxicity and toxicity test results can be used to predict potential carcinogens. Previous attempts have been potentially biased by prior knowledge about the tumorigenicity of chemicals in animals or humans, but the 44(More)
A transgenic mouse line (TG.AC) created in the FVB/N strain, carries a v-Ha-ras gene fused to a zeta-globin promoter gene. These trangenic mice have the properties of genetically initiated skin and have been shown to be sensitive to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-described promoter of skin papillomas in the two-stage mouse skin(More)
The genetically initiated Tg.AC transgenic mouse carries a transgene consisting of an oncogenic v-Ha-ras coding region flanked 5' by a mouse zeta-globin promoter and 3' by an SV-40 polyadenylation sequence. Located on chromosome 11, the transgene is transcriptionally silent until activated by chemical carcinogens, UV light, or full-thickness wounding.(More)
The haplo-insufficient p53 knockout (p53+/-) and zetaglobin v-Ha-ras (Tg.AC) transgenic mouse models were compared to the conventional two rodent species carcinogen bioassay by prospectively testing nine chemicals. Seven of the chemicals classified as carcinogens in the conventional bioassay induced tumors in the liver or kidneys of B6C3F1 mice, and one(More)
Twelve chemicals from diverse structural classes were tested under code for their capacity to enhance the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by simian adenovirus SA7 in two independent laboratories. Pretreatment of hamster cells with eight of those chemicals (reserpine, dichlorvos, methapyrilene hydrochloride, benzidine dihydrochloride,(More)