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A finding commonly observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients is invasion of the brain by activated T cells and infected macrophages, eventually leading to the development of neurological disorders and HIV-1-associated dementia. The recruitment of T cells and macrophages into the brain is likely the result of chemokine(More)
Chemokines constitute a large family of secreted proteins that function as chemoattractants and activators of leukocytes. Astrocytes, the major glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), are a source of chemokine production within diseased brain. As such, we have examined the production of chemokines by human astroglioma cell lines and primary(More)
In the CNS, astrocytes are a major inducible source of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although IL-6 has beneficial effects in the CNS because of its neurotrophic properties, its overexpression is generally detrimental, adding to the pathophysiology associated with CNS disorders. Many factors have been shown to induce IL-6 expression by astrocytes, particularly the(More)
Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) gene 1, the 22-kb polymerase (pol) gene, is first translated into a polyprotein and subsequently processed into multiple proteins by viral autoproteases. Genetic complementation analyses suggest that the majority of the gene 1 products are required for viral RNA synthesis. However, there is no physical evidence supporting the(More)
Chemokines constitute a superfamily of proteins that function as chemoattractants and activators of leukocytes. Astrocytes, the major glial cell type in the CNS, are a source of chemokines within the diseased brain. Specifically, we have shown that primary human astrocytes and human astroglioma cell lines produce the CXC chemokines IFN-gamma-inducible(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the association between tumor markers [cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)] and clinicopathological parameters and patient outcomes in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 740 patients with stages I-III breast cancer had preoperative CA 15-3 and CEA concentrations measured. Univariate and(More)
Fas transduces not only apoptotic signals through various pathways but also angiogenic and proinflammatory responses in vivo. Human glioma cells express Fas although sensitivity to Fas-mediated cell death is variable, suggesting that Fas may have functions other than apoptosis in these cells. In this study, we addressed alternative functions of Fas(More)
Adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are increased in the central nervous system (CNS) during inflammatory responses and contribute to extravasation of leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and into CNS parenchyma. Astrocytes contribute to the structural integrity of the BBB and can be induced to express VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in response to(More)
In an attempt to enable comprehensive high-resolution genotyping of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) gene, we performed a systemic analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms at introns 1 and 2 and exon 2 from diverse alleles of SLA-DRB1 and DRB1 pseudogenes. We amplified and cloned 16 partial sequences of SLA-DRB1 and DRB2 introns 1 and 2 from different alleles,(More)
All of the previously reported recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp), the NS5B enzymes, of hepatitis C virus (HCV) could function only in a primer-dependent and template-nonspecific manner, which is different from the expected properties of the functional viral enzymes in the cells. We have now expressed a recombinant NS5B that is able to(More)