J. W. Liu

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Blood-brain barrier dysfunction is implicated in various neurological conditions. Modulating the blood-brain barrier may have therapeutic value. Progress is hindered by our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of the blood-brain barrier in humans, partly due to restricted availability of human tissue, and because human tissue can only provide(More)
Human brain tissue is a valuable source of material for research. It is often stored indefinitely in formalin at room temperature which may weaken the immunolabeling with formalin-sensitive antibodies. The present study found that a novel protocol that combined citrate and formic acid pre-treatments with the catalyzed signal amplification (CSA) system was(More)
Epithelial fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP) is up-regulated in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve crush and in differentiating neurons during development. The present study investigates the role of E-FABP during nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Undifferentiated PC12 cells express low levels of E-FABP, while NGF(More)
INTRODUCTION Activation of the mTOR pathway has been linked to the cytopathology and epileptogenicity of malformations, specifically Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) and Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC). Experimental and clinical trials have shown than mTOR inhibitors have anti-epileptogenic effects in TS. Dysmorphic neurones and balloon cells are hallmarks of FCDIIb(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[(11)C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with(More)
Key questions remain regarding the processes governing gliogenesis following central nervous system injury that are critical to understanding both beneficial brain repair mechanisms and any long-term detrimental effects, including increased risk of seizures. We have used cortical injury produced by intracranial electrodes (ICEs) to study the time-course and(More)
PURPOSE Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in critical aspects of cell survival in response to hypoxia and regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Previous experimental and human studies in epilepsy show up-regulation of VEGF following seizures, although expression of HIF-1α as its potential regulator has not been(More)
16p13.11 genomic copy number variants are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation, ADHD and epilepsy. The mechanisms leading to the diverse clinical manifestations of deletions and duplications at this locus are unknown. Most studies favour NDE1 as the leading disease-causing candidate gene at(More)
PURPOSE A diagnostic feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increased subcortical white matter (WM) signal on T2 sequences corresponding to hypomyelination, the cause of which is unknown. We aimed to quantify WM pathology in FCD type II and any deficiency in the numbers and differentiation of(More)
BACKGROUND De novo interictal psychosis, albeit uncommon, can develop in patients following temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. Pathological alterations of the dentate gyrus, including cytoarchitectural changes, immaturity and axonal reorganization that occur in epilepsy, may also underpin co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study candidate(More)