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The purpose of this review is to describe the statistical methods available to determine sample size and power analysis in clinical trials. The information was obtained from standard textbooks and personal experience. Equations are provided for the calculations and suggestions are made for the use of power tables. It is concluded that sample size(More)
Acoustic data for female esophageal speakers is sparse, particularly with regard to characteristics of female tracheoesophageal speakers. This study quantified and compared six acoustic characteristics of excellent female tracheoesophageal (TE), standard esophageal (SE), and laryngeal (LA) speakers. Results indicated there were no significant differences(More)
A 61-year-old male with a 24-year history of unilateral vocal fold paralysis was evaluated by a speech-language pathologist and an otolaryngologist for 52 weeks following Teflon injection. Tape recordings of the patient's voice were obtained one week prior to and one, eight, 20, and 52 weeks subsequent to Teflon injection. The recorded samples were(More)
Thirteen individuals with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) were studied pre- and post-treatment. The effect of treatment on perceptual ratings of voice quality and frequency and intensity measures was examined. Relationships between perceptual and acoustic parameters were assessed descriptively. Results showed a small, but significant improvement in the(More)
Acoustic characteristics of American English sentence stress produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. Fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and vowel intensity in the sentence-level stress produced by 40 Mandarin speakers were compared to those of 40 American English speakers. Results obtained from two methods of stress calculation indicated(More)
Acoustic characteristics of the vowels /i,u,a/ produced by adult females and males during normal phonation were compared with the same vowels produced on deliberate ingressive airflow (i.e., "reverse" phonation). Results of the analysis revealed the average fundamental frequency (F0) of reverse phonation to be significantly higher than the corresponding(More)
This study tested a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships between the olfactory abilities and the volume of nasal airflow in laryngectomees. Data were collected from 25 laryngectomees and 25 control subjects and comprised the following: 1) Odor threshold and identification test results. In the threshold test, an 11-step aqueous dilution(More)
Fundamental frequency (F(0)), F(0) contours, vowel duration, and intensity associated with Cantonese alaryngeal speech, and their relation to the perception of meaning were studied. Thirty adult male native Cantonese speakers participated in the study: 10 esophageal, 10 electrolaryngeal, and 10 laryngeal speakers. Results indicated that perceptually,(More)
Listeners were asked to identify six tonal variations in the production of the syllables /ji/ and /si/ produced by 10 normal laryngeal (NL), 10 standard esophageal (SE), and 10 Servox-type electrolarynx (EL) Cantonese speakers. The purpose of the present study was to determine if alaryngeal Cantonese speakers could differentiate meanings associated with(More)
A number of hypotheses concerning the causal relationships and interrelationships between esophageal speech acceptability, olfactory abilities, and airflow volume in laryngectomees were tested. To assess the hypotheses, data were collected from 25 laryngectomees and comprised the following: (1) A measure of speech acceptability using a standard passage of(More)