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There is substantial evidence that soil thermal dynamics are changing in terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere and that these dynamics have implications for the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. To date, large-scale biogeochemical models have been slow to incorporate the effects of soil thermal dynamics on(More)
The terrestrial carbon sink, as of yet unidentified, represents 15-30% of annual global emissions of carbon from fossil fuels and industrial activities. Some of the missing carbon is sequestered in vegetation biomass and, under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, industrialized nations can use certain forest(More)
[1] The analysis of a global data set of monthly leaf area index (LAI), derived from satellite observations of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the period July 1981 to September 1994, is discussed in this paper. Validation of this retroactive, coarse resolution (8 km) global multiyear data set is a challenging task because repetitive ground(More)
Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Thyroid hormones are important for central nervous system development. Mild maternal iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinaemia causes neurological deficits and mental retardation of the foetus. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these(More)
This paper presents the analysis of radiative transfer assumptions underlying moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) algorithm for the case of spatially heterogeneous broadleaf forests. Data collected by a Boston University research group during the July 2000(More)
Leaving riparian strips on both sides of a stream is widely accepted to be an effective management approach in sustaining the valuable functions of stream and riparian ecosystems. The authors' overall objective is to provide microclimatic information for assessing the effectiveness of these strips. During the summer of 1993 and 1994, air temperatures were(More)
The two sides of the brain are differently involved in the modulation of immune responses as demonstrated by lesion and behavioral approaches. To study the interactions between cerebral cortex cytokines and brain lateralization, three groups of BALB/c mice were selected on the basis of their performance in the paw preference test (left-pawed, ambidextrous(More)
OBJECTIVE The brain modulates the immune system in an asymmetrical way, as shown by the association between paw preference and immune response in the mouse. We predicted that the production of cytokines, which are one of the molecular pathways for brain-immune interactions, should be linked to lateralization in a strain-dependent manner. METHODS We(More)
Developmental iodine deficiency leads to inadequate thyroid hormone, which damages the hippocampus. In the present study, we implicate hippocampal caveolin-1 and synaptophysin in developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. Two developmental rat models were established: pregnant rats were administered either an iodine-deficient diet or(More)
BACKGROUND T lymphocyte infiltration has been detected in glioma, although its significance remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to explore the prognostic value of CD4(+) and CD8(+) tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in glioma, and the prognostic value of infiltrating Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+)) regulatory T cells were also(More)