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An in vitro test battery is described which consists of five systems using different types of cells: (1) bovine sperm cells, (2) Balb/c 3T3 cells, (3) primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, (4) primary cultures of rat muscle cells, and (5) co-cultures of microcarrier-attached rate hepatocytes and Balb/c 3T3 cells. This combination of in vitro systems covers(More)
The toxicity of many chemicals is modified by biotransformation reactions in the liver. To detect metabolism-mediated alterations of the cytotoxicity of chemicals in vitro, a coculture system consisting of rat hepatocytes on collagen-coated microcarriers and "monolayers" of BALB/c3T3 cells was developed. This cocultivation system was used to study toxic(More)
The screening of chemicals for their potential to interfere with excitable cell membranes should be an important element of in vitro testing for acute toxicity. The suitability for this purpose of a test system using primary cultured rat skeletal muscle cells was evaluated. The test protocol involved the determination of the concentration-dependent effects(More)
A test system using primary cultured, spontaneously contracting, rat skeletal muscle cells has been developed to detect chemical interactions with excitable membranes. Taking into account some basic toxicokinetic differences between the in vivo and in vitro conditions, results obtained with the first 30 MEIC reference chemicals were quantitatively compared(More)
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