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Two classes of models have been proposed to explain how redundant information extracted from separate sources comes to activate a single response. Each provides a fundamentally different account of why responses to redundant signals are typically faster than those to either signal alone (the redundant-signals effect). Independent race models assume that a(More)
When attention is divided between spatially distinct objects, the time to detect a target decreases when two or more targets are present. This redundancy gain can be accounted for by an interactive race model (Mordkoff & Yantis, 1991) in which separate decisions are made about each object, but environmental contingencies among the objects can influence(More)
Previous research examining response time has supported coactivation under certain conditions. Other research has found more forceful responses to redundant-target than to single-target displays, suggesting coactivation in the motor component. The authors tested for motor coactivation using response time, response force, and other psychophysiological(More)
Two different schemes of the central organization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) have been proposed: one of them assumes that postural and focal components of an action are results of a single control process (single-process hypothesis) while the other one suggests that these two components result from two relatively independent control(More)
We evaluated the effects of two laboratory stressors (speech preparation and isometric handgrip) on gastric myoelectrical and autonomic cardiac activity, and the extent to which autonomic responses to these stressors and somatization predict reports of motion sickness during exposure to a rotating optokinetic drum. Both stressors prompted a decrease in(More)
Previous studies have found that the magnitude of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) at the time of response initiation is constant across spontaneous variations in response time in both cued and uncued, speeded tasks. Other studies have found that the LRP is also unaffected by instructed changes in peak response force and time to peak force in cued,(More)
Recent research on attention has identified three separable components, known as alerting, orienting, and executive functioning, which are thought to be subserved by distinct neural networks. Despite systematic investigation into their relatedness to each other and to psychopathology, little is known about how these three networks might be modulated by such(More)
On what basis does the visual system use recently sampled information to update existing representations of the world? One possibility is that representations are updated through an image-based point-for-point replacement process. An alternative possibility is that representations are updated on the basis of perceptually organized units that reflect objects(More)
Sequential modulation is the finding that the sizes of several selective-attention phenomena--namely, the Simon, flanker, and Stroop effects--are larger following congruent trials than following incongruent trials. In order to rule out relatively uninteresting explanations of sequential modulation that are based on a variety of stimulus- and(More)
BACKGROUND A limited number of attempts have been made to develop a questionnaire that assesses the experience of motion sickness. Further, many available questionnaires quantify motion sickness as a unidimensional construct. METHOD Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of motion sickness descriptors were used to derive and verify four dimensions(More)