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Previous studies demonstrated that chronic systemic exposure to the pesticide and mitochondrial toxin rotenone through jugular vein cannulation reproduced many features of Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats, including nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and formation of alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions in nigral neurons (R. Betarbet et al.,(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of exonic CAG triplet repeats in the gene encoding huntingtin protein (Htt), but the mechanisms by which this mutant protein causes neurodegeneration remain unknown. Here we show that lymphoblast mitochondria from patients with HD have a lower membrane potential and depolarize at lower calcium loads than(More)
Chronic rotenone exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease (PD) (Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 1301; Exp. Neurol. 179 (2003) 9). We investigated the role of glial activation in rotenone toxicity in vivo. Male Lewis rats received 2-3 mg/kg rotenone per day for up to 4 weeks. In 50% of surviving rotenone-treated animals, there was nigrostriatal(More)
These experiments re-examined the notion that reduced activity in the external pallidal segment (GPe) results in the abnormalities of neuronal discharge in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the internal pallidal segment (GPi) and in the development of parkinsonian motor signs. Extracellular recording in two rhesus monkeys, which had been rendered(More)
Exposure of rats to the pesticide and complex I inhibitor rotenone reproduces features of Parkinson's disease, including selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions (Betarbet et al., 2000; Sherer et al., 2003). Here, we examined mechanisms of rotenone toxicity using three model systems. In SK-N-MC(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by progressive neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Currently, the cause of the disease is unknown, except for a small percentage of familial cases (<10% of total). The rat rotenone model reproduces many of the pathological features of the human disease, including(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in huntingtin (htt), a large (350 kDa) protein that localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm. Proteolytic cleavage of mutant htt yields polyQ-containing N-terminal fragments that are prone to misfolding and aggregation. Disease progression in HD transgenic models correlates with(More)
To elucidate factors related to selective dopamine neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), we have defined gene expression profiles of discrete dopamine neuron subpopulations in the rat using immunofluorescent laser capture microscopy and microarray analysis. Although profiles were remarkably similar, there are concerted categorical differences in(More)
The systemic rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) accurately replicates many aspects of the pathology of human PD and has provided insights into the pathogenesis of PD. The major limitation of the rotenone model has been its variability, both in terms of the percentage of animals that develop a clear-cut nigrostriatal lesion and the extent of that(More)
Gastrointestinal disorders, particularly severe constipation and delayed gastric emptying, are core symptoms of Parkinson's disease that affect most patients. However, the neuropathological substrate and physiological basis for this dysfunction are poorly defined. To begin to explore these phenomena in laboratory models of PD, rats were treated with either(More)