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Concentrations of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) in human breast milk are important indicators of infant formula DHA and AA concentrations, and recent evidence suggests that neural maturation of breastfed infants is linked to breast-milk LCPUFA concentrations. We(More)
BACKGROUND Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity(More)
Phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have been proposed to be required as conformational cofactors for the functional assembly of membrane proteins such as rhodopsin, ion pumps and the various complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (Infante, 1987, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 74, 111-116; Infante and Huszagh, 2000, FEBS Lett. 468,(More)
Although high-precision isotope determinations are routine in many areas of natural science, the instrument principles for their measurements have remained remarkably unchanged for four decades. The introduction of continuous-flow techniques to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrumentation has precipitated a rapid expansion in capabilities for(More)
The fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1 and FADS2) code for enzymes required for synthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) important in the central nervous system, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular health. SNPs in these genes are associated with numerous health outcomes, but it is unclear how genetic variation(More)
Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is the major n-3 (omega 3) fatty acid in the human diet. It is derived mainly from terrestrial plant consumption and it has long been thought that its major biochemical role is as the principal precursor for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, of which eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) are the(More)
We report here methods for simultaneous determination of in vitro desaturase activities using stable isotope tracers or using a nontracer method in place of radiotracers. Rat microsomal Delta6- and Delta9-desaturase activities were assayed using standard incubation medium by monitoring the increase in product due to the reactions [U-13C]18:2n-6 -->(More)
It has been previously established that trans-10, cis-12 CLA is a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Although the mechanism of this action is not completely understood, it has been speculated that eicosanoid-like metabolites of this isomer formed by the activity of tissue desaturases may be responsible for its activity. The objective of this study was(More)
The maintenance of optimal cognitive function is a central feature of healthy aging. Impairment in brain glucose uptake is common in aging associated cognitive deterioration, but little is known of how this problem arises or whether it can be corrected or bypassed. Several aspects of the challenge to providing the brain with an adequate supply of fuel(More)
Rapid transport of retinoids across the interphotoreceptor matrix is a critical part of the visual cycle, since it serves to replenish bleached rhodopsin with its chromophore 11-cis-retinal. The transport of retinoids in the interphotoreceptor matrix is believed to be mediated by the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), a protein that, in(More)