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Two classes of models have been proposed to explain how redundant information extracted from separate sources comes to activate a single response. Each provides a fundamentally different account of why responses to redundant signals are typically faster than those to either signal alone (the redundant-signals effect). Independent race models assume that a(More)
When attention is divided between spatially distinct objects, the time to detect a target decreases when two or more targets are present. This redundancy gain can be accounted for by an interactive race model (Mordkoff & Yantis, 1991) in which separate decisions are made about each object, but environmental contingencies among the objects can influence(More)
Previous research examining response time has supported coactivation under certain conditions. Other research has found more forceful responses to redundant-target than to single-target displays, suggesting coactivation in the motor component. The authors tested for motor coactivation using response time, response force, and other psychophysiological(More)
Previous studies have found that the magnitude of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) at the time of response initiation is constant across spontaneous variations in response time in both cued and uncued, speeded tasks. Other studies have found that the LRP is also unaffected by instructed changes in peak response force and time to peak force in cued,(More)
Certain theories of visual attention assume that at least one processing stage must be serial when the target of search is defined as the conjunction of two or more separable features. To explain why conjunction-search response times do not always form linearly increasing functions of display size, recent versions of this general model have posited the(More)
Studies that measure the onset of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) could well provide researchers with important new data concerning the information-processing locus of experimental effects of interest. However, detecting the onset of the LRP has proved difficult. The present study used computer simulations involving both human and artificial data,(More)
When a visual display contains two targets, both of which require the same response, reaction times (RTs) are faster than when only one target appears. This effect has previously been obtained regardless of whether the redundant targets are the same or different in shape, and in at least one set of two-target experiments, the redundancy gains have been(More)
The interactive race model embodies 2 central claims: that divided attention is best described as a race between separately processed codes and that the 2 types of design contingency to which the model is sensitive affect different processing stages. Previous support for the model has come from a series of redundant-target tasks examining reaction time (RT)(More)
We evaluated the effects of two laboratory stressors (speech preparation and isometric handgrip) on gastric myoelectrical and autonomic cardiac activity, and the extent to which autonomic responses to these stressors and somatization predict reports of motion sickness during exposure to a rotating optokinetic drum. Both stressors prompted a decrease in(More)
We examined the relationship between force and rate of force development aspects of movement dynamics and electroencephalogram motor components as reflected in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP). Using self-paced tasks, in Studies 1 and 3 we investigated whether differential speed and accuracy constraints in discrete and repetitive finger force(More)