J. T. Brenna

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BACKGROUND Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity(More)
BACKGROUND Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) are the major long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) of the central nervous system (CNS). These nutrients are present in most infant formulas at modest levels, intended to support visual and neural development. There are no investigations in primates of the(More)
BACKGROUND Genes coding for the fatty acid desaturases (FADS1, 2, 3) localized at the cancer genomic hotspot 11q13 locus are required for the biosynthesis of 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are direct eicosanoid precursors. In several cancer cell lines, FADS2 encoded Δ6 and Δ8 desaturation is not functional. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
PURPOSE Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and prematurity are both associated with suboptimal visual function in nonhuman primates and in humans. This study reports measurements of retinal long chain polyunsaturate (LCP) concentrations and electroretinogram (ERG) parameters for term and preterm neonatal baboons consuming clinically relevant(More)
BACKGROUND Higher fish or higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake normally correlates positively with higher plasma DHA level, but recent evidence suggests that the positive relationship between intake and plasma levels of DHA is less clear in the elderly. METHODS We compared the metabolism of 13C-DHA in six healthy elderly (mean - 77 y old) and six(More)
Docosahexaenoate is important for normal neural development. It can be derived from alpha-linolenate, but carbon from alpha-linolenate is also recycled into de novo lipid synthesis. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of alpha-linolenate used to produce docosahexaenoate versus lipids synthesized de novo that accumulate in the brain of the(More)
We measured body temperature continuously using telemetry to determine the development of circadian rhythmicity in neonatal baboons after birth. Twelve fetal baboons (nine males and three females) of known gestational age ranging from 167 to 193 d were studied. We eliminated the influence of maternal factors by hand rearing these infants from the moment of(More)
Linoleic acid plasma kinetics in pregnant baboons and its conversion to long chain polyunsaturates (LCP) in fetal organs is characterized over a 29-day period using stable isotope tracers. Pregnant baboons consumed an LCP-free diet and received [U-13C]linoleic acid (18:2*) in their third trimester of gestation. In maternal plasma, 18:2* dropped to near(More)
Cats have limited Δ6 desaturase activity. However, γ-linolenate (GLA) feeding may by-pass the Δ6 desaturase step allowing arachidonate (ARA) accumulation via Δ5-desaturation. Alternatively, high dietary linoleate (LNA) may induce limited Δ6 desaturase also resulting in ARA accumulation. Fatty acid profiles were determined after feeding high LNA, high GLA,(More)
Carbon recycling and desaturation and elongation of linoleate, alpha-linolenate and docosahexaenoate in ten fetuses and two nursing infants of chow-fed rhesus monkey mothers were studied in vivo using uniformly labeled tracer molecules and high precision mass spectrometry. Doses of [U-13C]-18:2n-6, [U-13C]-18:3n-3 or [U-13C]-22:6n-3 free fatty acids were(More)