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BACKGROUND Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common manifestations of Alzheimer' s disease (AD). OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence and significance of NPS in very mild and mild AD patients with emphasis on their influence on the well-being of the patients and their caregivers. METHODS The participants were 240 patient-caregiver dyads who(More)
We have previously reported increased concentrations of interleukin (1L)-6 in CSF from patients with tonic-clonic seizures, where increased cytokine production most likely is a consequence of neuronal epileptic activity associated with seizures. The biological effects of IL-6 are mediated by other cytokines, which are studied here in addition to IL-6. The(More)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered an effective and safe treatment in major depressive disorders. However, the possibility that it may induce cognitive adverse effects observed in selected patients has raised a concern that ECT may induce neuronal damage. The biomarkers of brain damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100b protein (S-100b),(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine and compare self-rated and caregiver-rated measures of quality of life (QoL) in relation to disease progression in patients with very mild or mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and at what disease stage patient's ability to respond to QoL questionnaires with or without assistance begins to diminish. METHODS 236 patients with very mild or(More)
There are indications that mood disorders may be related to perturbations in the amino acid transmitters. The amino acids may thus be targets of treatment of depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure the acute effects of a single administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on the plasma levels of amino acids in depressed patients. ECT(More)
PURPOSE Increased concentrations of the nervous-system-specific proteins neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100 protein (S-100) have been measured with lesions in the CNS. Elevated levels of serum NSE (s-NSE) have been found in status epilepticus, but also after single epileptic seizures. Because larger studies addressing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels(More)
PURPOSE Whether repeated brief seizures can cause neuronal damage is controversial. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) measurements have been suggested for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, and T-tau may also be a marker of axonal damage and neuronal degeneration. We studied T-tau and P-tau levels and P-tau/T-tau(More)
Established markers of brain damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100b protein (S-100), may increase after status epilepticus, but whether a single tonic-clonic or complex partial seizure induces elevation of these markers is not known. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the risk of seizure-related neuronal damage in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)(More)
Any complaints from a patient about their memory should be examined. Diagnosis is based on international criteria. The basic evaluation consists of the medical history, clinical evaluation, cognitive tests and brain imaging, especially using MRI. When a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, AD with cerebrovascular disease or with Lewy Body disease, or Dementia(More)