J. Steven Leeder

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From the Departments of Pediatrics (G.L.K., S.M.A.-R., S.W.A., D.L.B., J.S.L., R.E.K.), Pharmacology (G.L.K., D.L.B., J.S.L., R.E.K.), and Pharmacy Practice (S.M.A.-R.), University of Missouri at Kansas City; and the Divisions of Pediatric Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology (G.L.K., S.M.A.-R., S.W.A., D.L.B., J.S.L., R.E.K.), Emergency Medicine (S.W.A.),(More)
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood. Despite the progress achieved in its treatment, 20% of cases relapse and no longer respond to chemotherapy. The most common phenotype of ALL cells share surface antigens with very early precursors of B cells and are therefore believed to originate from this lineage. Characterization(More)
Inferring CYP2D6 phenotype from genotype is increasingly challenging, considering the growing number of alleles and their range of activity. This complexity poses a challenge in translational research where genotyping is being considered as a tool to personalize drug therapy. To simplify genotype interpretation and improve phenotype prediction, we evaluated(More)
The use of 96-well microtiter plates and a programmable microplate reader to measure glutathione reductase in an assay based on reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by GSH generated from an excess of GSSG is described. Samples are prepared in 96-well plates and absorbance at 415 nm with a reference wavelength of 595 is determined every 30 s for(More)
The maturation of organ systems during fetal life and childhood exerts a profound effect on drug disposition. The maturation of drug-metabolising enzymes is probably the predominant factor accounting for age-associated changes in non-renal drug clearance. The group of drug-metabolising enzymes most studied are the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily. The(More)
Liver cytochrome P450s (P450s) play critical roles in drug metabolism, toxicology, and metabolic processes. Despite rapid progress in the understanding of these enzymes, a systematic investigation of the full spectrum of functionality of individual P450s, the interrelationship or networks connecting them, and the genetic control of each gene/enzyme is(More)
Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) is a highly polymorphic gene locus with > 50 variant alleles which lead to a wide range in enzymatic activity. So called poor metabolizers are carriers of any two non-functional alleles of the CYP2D6 gene. CYP2D6 genotyping is cumbersome and the question of how much genotyping is necessary for an accurate phenotype prediction is(More)
Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine are governed by CYP2D6 activity. Polymorphisms are a major cause of CYP2D6 variability. We summarize evidence from the literature supporting this association and provide therapeutic recommendations for codeine(More)
Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e.,(More)
A CYP2D7 brain-specific protein metabolizing codeine and encoded by an alternate mRNA has recently been described in Indian subjects. To examine its potential presence in other ethnic backgrounds, CYP2D7 and CYP2D6 full-length splice products were analyzed in liver and brain. CYP2D7 splice variant-specific PCR on 13 subjects revealed the previously reported(More)