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The use of 96-well microtiter plates and a programmable microplate reader to measure glutathione reductase in an assay based on reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by GSH generated from an excess of GSSG is described. Samples are prepared in 96-well plates and absorbance at 415 nm with a reference wavelength of 595 is determined every 30 s for(More)
Several mutations are known or suspected to affect mRNA splicing of CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes; however, little experimental evidence exists to support these conclusions. The present study applies mathematical models that measure changes in information content of splice sites in these genes to demonstrate the relationship between the predicted(More)
During human development impressive changes in drug disposition occur. An important determinant of drug clearance is metabolism, something that is not only determined by ontogenic regulation but also by genetic processes which add to the variability of drug metabolism during different stages of childhood. Therefore, an understanding of the developmental(More)
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood. Despite the progress achieved in its treatment, 20% of cases relapse and no longer respond to chemotherapy. The most common phenotype of ALL cells share surface antigens with very early precursors of B cells and are therefore believed to originate from this lineage. Characterization(More)
The maturation of organ systems during fetal life and childhood exerts a profound effect on drug disposition. The maturation of drug-metabolising enzymes is probably the predominant factor accounting for age-associated changes in non-renal drug clearance. The group of drug-metabolising enzymes most studied are the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily. The(More)
QUESTION Recently a newborn died from morphine poisoning when his mother used codeine while breastfeeding. Many patients receive codeine for postlabour pain. Is it safe to prescribe codeine for nursing mothers? ANSWER When a mother is an ultrarapid metabolizer of cytochrome P450 2D6, she produces much more morphine when taking codeine than most people do.(More)
Codeine is bioactivated to morphine, a strong opioid agonist, by the hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6); hence, the efficacy and safety of codeine are governed by CYP2D6 activity. Polymorphisms are a major cause of CYP2D6 variability. We summarize evidence from the literature supporting this association and provide therapeutic recommendations for codeine(More)
Liver cytochrome P450s (P450s) play critical roles in drug metabolism, toxicology, and metabolic processes. Despite rapid progress in the understanding of these enzymes, a systematic investigation of the full spectrum of functionality of individual P450s, the interrelationship or networks connecting them, and the genetic control of each gene/enzyme is(More)