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BACKGROUND Roughly, 10% of elderly patients develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction. General anesthesia impairs spatial memory in aged rats, but the mechanism is not known. Hippocampal neurogenesis affects spatial learning and memory in rats, and isoflurane affects neurogenesis in neonatal and young adult rats. We tested the hypothesis that isoflurane(More)
BACKGROUND Anesthetic agents cause cell death in the developing rodent brain and long-term, mostly hippocampal-dependent, neurocognitive dysfunction. However, a causal link between these findings has not been shown. Postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis affects hippocampal function into adulthood; therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that isoflurane(More)
Functional abnormalities in emotion-related brain systems have been implicated in depression, and depressed patients may therefore attribute emotional valence to stimuli that are normally interpreted as emotionally neutral. The present study examined this hypothesis by comparing recognition of different facial expressions in patients with moderate to severe(More)
In this report, the treatment of a 42-year-old female with a complaint of chronic sleep-onset insomnia is described. Following the unsuccessful use of relaxation training, treatment consisted of 11 sessions of EEG theta rhythm (4--7 Hz) biofeedback. Theta density and five sleep indices were monitored throughout baseline, placebo, and treatment sessions. A(More)
A hereditary cerebellar degenerative disorder has emerged in Scottish Terriers. The aims of this study were to describe and quantify polyglucosan body accumulation and quantify Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum of affected and control dogs. The brains of 6 affected Scottish Terriers ranging in age from 8 to 15 years and 8 age-matched control dogs were(More)
A vacuolar degeneration affecting primarily the gray matter in the central nervous system (CNS) of young Australian Cattle Dogs is described. An initial presentation of seizures was followed by a progressive spastic tetraparesis. Grossly evident bilateral and symmetrical foci of malacia were in the nuclei of the cerebellum and brain stem and the gray matter(More)
The olfactory system is divided into processing channels (glomeruli), each receiving input from a different type of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). Here we investigated how glomeruli combine to control behavior in freely walking Drosophila. We found that optogenetically activating single ORN types typically produced attraction, although some ORN types(More)
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