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The motor system may use internal predictive models of the motor apparatus to achieve better control than would be possible by negative feedback. Several theories have proposed that the cerebellum may form these predictive representations. In this article, we review these theories and try to unify them by reference to an engineering control model known as a(More)
The DYX2 locus on chromosome 6p22.2 is the most replicated region of linkage to developmental dyslexia (DD). Two candidate genes within this region have recently been implicated in the disorder: KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Variants within DCDC2 have shown association with DD in a US and a German sample. However, when we genotyped these specific variants in two(More)
Parkinson's disease is treated pharmacologically with dopamine replacement medication and, more recently, by stimulating basal-ganglia nuclei such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Depth recordings after this procedure have revealed excessive activity at frequencies between 8 and 35 Hz (Brown et al., 2001; Kuhn et al., 2004; Priori et al., 2004) that are(More)
The relationship between sensory sensitivity and reading performance was examined to test the hypothesis that the orthographic and phonological skills engaged in visual word recognition are constrained by the ability to detect dynamic visual and auditory events. A test battery using sensory psychophysics, psychometric tests, and measures of component(More)
We confirm Craik's (1947) observation that the human manual1y tracking a visual target behaves like an intermittent servo-control1er. Such tracking responses are indicative of "sampled" negative-feedback control but could be the result of other, continuous, mechanisms. Tracking performance therefore was recorded in a task in which visual feedback of the(More)
Recent application of nonparametric-linkage analysis to reading disability has implicated a putative quantitative-trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 6. In the present study, we use QTL methods to evaluate linkage to the 6p25-21.3 region in a sample of 181 sib pairs from 82 nuclear families that were selected on the basis of a dyslexic proband.(More)
Left-right asymmetrical brain function underlies much of human cognition, behavior and emotion. Abnormalities of cerebral asymmetry are associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The molecular, developmental and evolutionary origins of human brain asymmetry are unknown. We found significant association of a haplotype upstream of the(More)
The cerebellum plays an important role in the visual guidance of movement. In order to understand the anatomical basis of visuomotor control, we studied the projection of pontine visual cells onto the cerebellar cortex of monkeys. Wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase was injected into the dorsolateral pons two monkeys. Retrogradely labelled cells(More)
Developmental dyslexia is generally believed to result from impaired linguistic processing rather than from deficits in low-level sensory function. Challenging this view, we studied the perception of non-verbal acoustic stimuli and low-level auditory evoked potentials in dyslexic adults. Compared with matched controls, dyslexics were selectively impaired in(More)