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Neuromodulin (Nm) and neurogranin (Ng) are neuron-specific substrates of protein kinase C (PKC). Their interactions with Calmodulin (CaM) are crucial for learning and memory formation in neurons. Here, we report the structure of IQ peptides (24aa) of Nm/Ng complexed with CaM and their functional studies with full-length proteins. Nm/Ng and their respective(More)
Cancer cells thrive very well by adapting their metabolic regimes and they use glucose and the amino acid glutamine as their energy sources. Glutaminase is required to break down glutamine in a process called glutaminolysis. This process provides a cell with energy and as such is exploited by cancer cells to meet their growing energy demands. Feeding off(More)
The neuronal-voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC), Na(V)1.6, plays an important role in propagating action potentials along myelinated axons. Calmodulin (CaM) is known to modulate the inactivation kinetics of Na(V)1.6 by interacting with its IQ motif. Here we report the crystal structure of apo-CaM:Na(V)1.6IQ motif, along with functional studies. The IQ(More)
Glutaminase is a metabolic enzyme responsible for glutaminolysis, a process harnessed by cancer cells to feed their accelerated growth and proliferation. Among the glutaminase isoforms, human kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) is often upregulated in cancer and is thus touted as an attractive drug target. Here we report the active site inhibition mechanism of(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein that binds specifically to more than 100 target proteins in response to calcium (Ca(2+)) signal. CaM adopts a considerable degree of structural plasticity to accomplish this physiological role; however, the nature and extent of this plasticity remain to be fully understood. Here, we report the(More)
Serine proteases play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. In the innate immune system of invertebrates, multi-domain protease inhibitors are important for the regulation of host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial activities. Serine protease inhibitors, 9.3-kDa CrSPI isoforms 1 and 2, have been identified from the hepatopancreas of the(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus, is transmitted in a faecal-oral manner, and causes acute liver diseases in humans. The HEV capsid is made up of capsomeres consisting of homodimers of a single structural capsid protein forming the virus shell. These dimers are believed to protrude from the viral surface and to interact(More)
Despite utilizing the same chymotrypsin fold to host the catalytic machinery, coronavirus 3C-like proteases (3CLpro) noticeably differ from picornavirus 3C proteases in acquiring an extra helical domain in evolution. Previously, the extra domain was demonstrated to regulate the catalysis of the SARS-CoV 3CLpro by controlling its dimerization. Here, we(More)
The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) is implicated in the virulence of many gram-negative bacteria. Edwardsiella tarda is an important cause of hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and also gastro- and extra-intestinal infections in humans. The E. tardavirulent protein (EVP) gene cluster encodes a conserved T6SS which contains 16 open reading(More)
In order to survive under extremely cold environments, many organisms produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs). AFPs inhibit the growth of ice crystals and protect organisms from freezing damage. Fish AFPs can be classified into five distinct types based on their structures. Here we report the structure of herring AFP (hAFP), a Ca(2+)-dependent fish type II AFP.(More)