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Cathepsin L is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and, like many other proteases, it is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme. Its prosegment shows little homology to that of procathepsin B, whose structure, the first for a cysteine protease proenzyme, has been determined recently. We report here the 3-D structure of a mutant of human(More)
Cinnamaldehyde is a natural product from spices that inhibits cell separation in Bacillus cereus. Cell division is regulated by FtsZ, a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin. FtsZ assembles into the Z-ring at the site of cell division. Here, we report the effect of cinnamaldehyde on FtsZ and hence on the cell division apparatus. Cinnamaldehyde decreases the in(More)
Neuromodulin (Nm) and neurogranin (Ng) are neuron-specific substrates of protein kinase C (PKC). Their interactions with Calmodulin (CaM) are crucial for learning and memory formation in neurons. Here, we report the structure of IQ peptides (24aa) of Nm/Ng complexed with CaM and their functional studies with full-length proteins. Nm/Ng and their respective(More)
The c-Cbl tyrosine kinase binding domain (Cbl-TKB), essentially an 'embedded' SH2 domain, has a critical role in targeting proteins for ubiquitination. To address how this domain can bind to disparate recognition mofits and to determine whether this results in variations in substrate-binding affinity, we compared crystal structures of the Cbl-TKB domain(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus, is transmitted in a faecal-oral manner, and causes acute liver diseases in humans. The HEV capsid is made up of capsomeres consisting of homodimers of a single structural capsid protein forming the virus shell. These dimers are believed to protrude from the viral surface and to interact(More)
Besides thriving on altered glucose metabolism, cancer cells undergo glutaminolysis to meet their energy demands. As the first enzyme in catalyzing glutaminolysis, human kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA) is becoming an attractive target for small molecules such as BPTES [bis-2-(5 phenylacetamido-1, 2, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide], although the(More)
Glutaminase is a metabolic enzyme responsible for glutaminolysis, a process harnessed by cancer cells to feed their accelerated growth and proliferation. Among the glutaminase isoforms, human kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) is often upregulated in cancer and is thus touted as an attractive drug target. Here we report the active site inhibition mechanism of(More)
Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Ecarpholin S, isolated from the venom of the snake Echis carinatus sochureki, is a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) belonging to the Ser(49)-PLA(2) subgroup. It has been characterized as having low enzymatic but potent myotoxic(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, is a major cause of enteric hepatitis. Classified into the family Hepeviridae, HEV comprises four genotypes (genotypes 1-4), which belong to a single serotype. We describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 8G12, which equally recognizes all four genotypes of HEV, with ∼(More)
The neuronal-voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC), Na(V)1.6, plays an important role in propagating action potentials along myelinated axons. Calmodulin (CaM) is known to modulate the inactivation kinetics of Na(V)1.6 by interacting with its IQ motif. Here we report the crystal structure of apo-CaM:Na(V)1.6IQ motif, along with functional studies. The IQ(More)