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Cathepsin L is a member of the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases and, like many other proteases, it is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme. Its prosegment shows little homology to that of procathepsin B, whose structure, the first for a cysteine protease proenzyme, has been determined recently. We report here the 3-D structure of a mutant of human(More)
Cinnamaldehyde is a natural product from spices that inhibits cell separation in Bacillus cereus. Cell division is regulated by FtsZ, a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin. FtsZ assembles into the Z-ring at the site of cell division. Here, we report the effect of cinnamaldehyde on FtsZ and hence on the cell division apparatus. Cinnamaldehyde decreases the in(More)
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen known to infect various crustaceans. It has bacilliform morphology with a tail-like appendage at one end. The envelope consists of four major proteins. Envelope structural proteins play a crucial role in viral infection and are believed to be the first molecules to interact with the host. Here, we(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus, is transmitted in a faecal-oral manner, and causes acute liver diseases in humans. The HEV capsid is made up of capsomeres consisting of homodimers of a single structural capsid protein forming the virus shell. These dimers are believed to protrude from the viral surface and to interact(More)
Neuromodulin (Nm) and neurogranin (Ng) are neuron-specific substrates of protein kinase C (PKC). Their interactions with Calmodulin (CaM) are crucial for learning and memory formation in neurons. Here, we report the structure of IQ peptides (24aa) of Nm/Ng complexed with CaM and their functional studies with full-length proteins. Nm/Ng and their respective(More)
Unlike 3C protease, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is only enzymatically active as a homodimer and its catalysis is under extensive regulation by the unique extra domain. Despite intense studies, two puzzles still remain: (i) how the dimer-monomer switch is controlled and (ii) why dimerization is(More)
MoeA is involved in synthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor, although its function is not yet clearly defined. The three-dimensional structure of the Escherichia coli protein was solved at 2.2 A resolution. The locations of highly conserved residues among the prokaryotic and eukaryotic MoeA homologs identifies a cleft in the dimer interface as the likely(More)
Cross-talk between the Hippo and Wnt pathways has been implicated recently in breast cancer development, but key intersections have yet to be fully defined. Here we report that WBP2, a transcription coactivator that binds the Hippo pathway transcription factor YAP/TAZ, contributes to Wnt signaling and breast cancer pathogenesis. Clinically, overexpression(More)
Besides thriving on altered glucose metabolism, cancer cells undergo glutaminolysis to meet their energy demands. As the first enzyme in catalyzing glutaminolysis, human kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA) is becoming an attractive target for small molecules such as BPTES [bis-2-(5 phenylacetamido-1, 2, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl) ethyl sulfide], although the(More)
Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes disease in both humans and animals. Recently, a type III secretion system (T3SS) has been found to contribute to Ed. tarda pathogenesis. EseB, EseC and EseD were shown to be secreted by the T3SS and to be the major components of the extracellular proteins (ECPs). Based on sequence(More)