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Keywords: Phase field approach Time stepping scheme Spectral element method Large density ratio Cahn–Hilliard equation a b s t r a c t We present an efficient time-stepping scheme for simulations of the coupled Navier– Stokes Cahn–Hilliard equations for the phase field approach. The scheme has several attractive characteristics: (i) it is suitable for large(More)
Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity and type China 1 was the dominant genotype of T. gondii prevalent in Chinese animals. However, little has been known concerning the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii circulating in chickens, pigs and rodents in China. The aim of(More)
The present study compared the potential neuroprotective effects of tanshinone (Tan) IIA monotherapy, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) monotherapy, and Tan IIA+TMP combination therapy in adult rat subjected to cerebral ischemic injury using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and in primary cortical neuron culture exposed to oxygen-glucose(More)
The aim of the present study was to explore the role of suture diameter and vessel insertion position in the preparation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. A total of 84 Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 250-300 g) were randomly divided to three groups: group A (type 1.0, suture diameter 0.16-0.17 mm and tip 0.21-0.22 mm); group B (type(More)
BACKGROUND Recent population structure studies of T. gondii revealed that a few major clonal lineages predominated in different geographical regions. T. gondii in South America is genetically and biologically divergent, whereas this parasite is remarkably clonal in North America and Europe with a few major lineages including Types I, II and III. Information(More)
We present an unconditionally stable splitting scheme for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on the rotational velocity-correction formulation. The main advantages of the scheme are: (i) it allows the use of time step sizes considerably larger than the widely-used semi-implicit type schemes: the time step size is only constrained by accuracy; (ii)(More)
Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and warm blooded animals causing devastating disease worldwide. It has long been a mystery as to why the peritoneal macrophages of rats are naturally resistant to T. gondii infection while those of mice are not. Here, we report that high expression levels and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and low levels(More)
BACKGROUND The hygiene hypothesis suggests that helminth infections prevent a range of autoimmune diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To investigate the effects of S. japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), male DBA/1 mice were challenged with unisexual or bisexual S. japonicum cercariae two weeks prior to bovine type II collagen(More)
The genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife is of interest to understand the transmission of this parasite in the environment. In the present study, we genetically characterized five T. gondii isolates from different wild animals including two isolates from a bobcat (Lynx rufus), one from a red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus), one(More)