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More than half of the solar energy absorbed by land surfaces is currently used to evaporate water. Climate change is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle and to alter evapotranspiration, with implications for ecosystem services and feedback to regional and global climate. Evapotranspiration changes may already be under way, but direct observational(More)
[1] The accuracy of forcing data greatly impacts the ability of land surface models (LSMs) to produce realistic simulations of land surface processes. With this in mind, the multi-institutional North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project has produced retrospective (1996–2002) and real-time (1999–present) data sets to support its LSM(More)
Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future as a result of climate change, mainly as a consequence of decreases in regional precipitation but also because of increasing evaporation driven by global warming. Previous assessments of historic changes in drought over the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries indicate that(More)
Recent and potential future increases in global temperatures are likely to be associated with impacts on the hydrologic cycle, including changes to precipitation and increases in extreme events such as droughts. We analyze changes in drought occurrence using soil moisture data for the SRES B1, A1B and A2 future climate scenarios relative to the PICNTRL(More)
This paper presents a continental-scale phenologica l analysis o f African savannas and woodlands. We app ly an array o f synerg is tic ve g e ta tio n and hyd ro log ica l data records from sate llite rem ote sensing and m ode l s im u la tions to exp lo re the in fluence o f ra iny season t im in g and d u ra tio n on reg iona l land surface ph e no lo g(More)
17 How is drought changing as the climate changes? Several recent papers in the scientific literature have focused on this question but the answer remains unclear. Here we attempt to understand this socially and ecologically relevant topic. We discuss what the expectations for changes in drought should be, and thus the prospects for the future, and we(More)
International Project (GCIP) and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP), including the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) Project Rachel T. Pinker (1), J. Dan Tarpley (2), Istvan Laszlo (2), Kenneth E. Mitchell (3), Paul R. Houser (4), Eric F. Wood (5), John C. Schaake (6), Alan Robock (7), Dag Lohmann (3), Brian A. Cosgrove (8),(More)
We present protocols and input data for Phase 1 of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison, a project of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). The project includes global simulations of yields, phenologies, and many land-surface fluxes using 12– 15 modeling groups for many crops, climate forcing data sets, and(More)
[1] We explore pan-Arctic climate connectivity by examining historical time series of satellite-based measurements of Eurasian snow cover extent and of observed Canadian snow water equivalent (SWE) and freshwater discharge, with a focus on the Churchill River Basin of Labrador and the Chesterfield Inlet Basin of Nunavut. Analysis of the data reveals(More)