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The performance of Turbo codes is addressed by examining the code’s distance spectrum. The ‘error floor’ that occurs at moderate signal-to-noise ratios is shown to be a consequence of the relatively low free distance of the code. It is also shown that the ‘error floor’ can be lowered by increasing the size of the interleaver without changing the free(More)
A set of four reference materials for the detection and quantification of silica nanoparticles (NPs) in food was produced as a proof of principle exercise. Neat silica suspensions were ampouled, tested for homogeneity and stability, and characterized for total silica content as well as particle diameter by dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron microscopy(More)
The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione,(More)
The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate General of the European Commission, operates the International Measurement Evaluation Program (IMEP). IMEP organises inter-laboratory comparisons in support of European Union policies. This paper presents the results of two proficiency tests(More)
A reference material of a PM2.5-like atmospheric dust material has been prepared using a newly developed method. It is intended to certify values for the mass fraction of SO42-, NO3-, Cl- (anions) and Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ (cations) in this material. A successful route for the preparation of the candidate reference material is described alongside with(More)
In satellite communication deep space mission are the most challenging mission, where system has to work at very low Eb/No. Concatenated codes are the ideal choice for such deep space mission. ISRO is planning to send unmanned mission for Mars and several deep space missions in future to study and detailed understanding of our own universe. This paper(More)
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