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The ultrafast internal conversion (IC) dynamics of seven C(40) carotenoids have been investigated at room temperature in a variety of solvents using two-color transient lens (TL) pump-probe spectroscopy. We provide comprehensive data sets for the carbonyl carotenoids canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and-for the first time-echinenone, as well as new data for(More)
The ultrafast internal conversion (IC) dynamics of the apocarotenoid citranaxanthin have been studied for the first time by means of two-color transient lens (TL) pump-probe spectroscopy. After excitation into the high-energy edge of the S2 band by a pump pulse at 400 nm, the subsequent intramolecular processes were probed at 800 nm. Experiments were(More)
A multilaboratory study was conducted to compare the automated BAX system and the standard cultural methods for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods. Six food types (frankfurters, soft cheese, smoked salmon, raw, ground beef, fresh radishes, and frozen peas) were analyzed by each method. For each food type, 3 inoculation levels were tested: high(More)
Stereo-selectively synthesized 1,3-poly-alcohols are introduced as low-dimensional spectroscopic model systems for molecular dynamics in hydrogen-bonded networks. The molecular and vibrational structures of the artificial networks are studied by means of density functional theory. The flexibility of the networks and the time scales associated with(More)
Supramolecular chemistry is intimately linked to the dynamical interplay between intermolecular forces and intramolecular flexibility. Here, we studied the ultrafast equilibrium dynamics of a supramolecular hydrogen-bonded receptor-substrate complex, 18-crown-6 monohydrate, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and two-dimensional infrared (2DIR)(More)
Die Virtuelle Z-Baum-Technik ist ein Verfahren zur Balancierung von Schlüsselbäumen, deren Knoten α≥1 Schlüssel enthalten und maximal den Grad α+1 haben. Die Balancierung wird durch eine dynamische Anpassung des Schlüsselbaumes an einen VZB (Virtuellen Z-Baum) erzeugt, dessen Schlüssel aus der Schlüsselverteilung berechnet werden. Der Aufwand für die(More)
With an efficient algorithm it can be tested whether an n-dimensional matrix B can be reduced by a permutation. The optimal step matrix, which can be obtained by a permutation, is calculated. The algorithm needs 0(n<sup>2</sup>-n) operations in the case of an array reprsentation of B. If B is a Sparse matrix with m non-zero offdiagonal elements, the cost is(More)
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