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Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is tightly regulated during the development of T lymphocytes. Several studies have indicated that in normal mice, thymocyte are sensitive to apoptosis primarily during a brief period relatively late in the CD4+8+ maturation stage, when both positive and negative selection are thought to occur. One factor regulating(More)
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) in vitro treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals specifically enhances the function and survival of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, while in vivo IL-15 treatment of mice preferentially expands memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effect(More)
BACKGROUND Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are an important category of drugs for both chemotherapy and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, current non-human primate (NHP) models utilizing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or commonly used chimeric SHIV (SIV expressing HIV-1 envelope) are(More)
This study investigated the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on the regulation of thymocyte sensitivity to clonal deletion via programmed cell death, or apoptosis. We have previously shown that TcR/CD3 cross-linking and intracellular stimuli that mimic TcR/CD3 cross-linking induce apoptosis in many immature thymocytes in the presence, but not in the(More)
SPL7013 is a dendrimer with a polyanionic outer surface that allows multiple interactions with target sites. It potently binds and blocks HIV-1 and chimeric simian/HIV-1 viruses (SHIVs) replication in vitro. Gels containing different concentrations of SPL7013 were used as topical microbicides in female pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to study their(More)
Great strides have been made in developing potent antiretroviral regimens that block human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription and assembly. Despite these therapeutic advances, problems of drug resistance, latent viral reservoirs, and drug-induced toxic effects that compromise effective viral control point to the need for new classes of anti-HIV(More)
The effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are not confined to cells of the myeloid lineage. GM-CSF has been shown to have effects on mature T cells and both mature and immature T-cell lines. We therefore examined the GM-CSF responsiveness of murine thymocytes to investigate whether GM-CSF also affected normal immature T(More)