Learn More
TRAIL, also called Apo2L, is a cytotoxic protein that induces apoptosis of many transformed cell lines but not of normal tissues, even though its death domain-containing receptor, DR4, is expressed on both cell types. An antagonist decoy receptor (designated as TRID for TRAIL receptor without an intracellular domain) that may explain the resistant phenotype(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway leads to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in mammals and is similar to the Toll pathway in Drosophila: the IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) is homologous to Pelle. Two additional proximal mediators were identified that are required for IL-1R-induced NF-kappaB activation: IRAK-2, a Pelle family(More)
TRAIL (also known as Apo-2L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that rapidly induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines. The human receptor for TRAIL was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF-receptor family (designated death receptor-4, DR4) that contains a cytoplasmic "death domain" capable of engaging the(More)
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and CD95 (also called Fas or APO-1) are cytokine receptors that engage the apoptosis pathway through a region of intracellular homology, designated the "death domain." Another death domain-containing member of the TNFR family, death receptor 3 (DR3), was identified and was shown to induce both apoptosis and(More)
EGFR T790M mutation occurs in half of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with acquired EGFR-TKI (TKI) resistance, based on tumor re-biopsies using an invasive clinical procedure. Here, we dynamically monitored T790M mutation in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) using serial plasma samples from NSCLC patients receiving TKI through Droplet Digital PCR(More)
A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the(More)
Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. A precise measurement of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1.9 GV to 3 TV based on 50 million events is presented and compared to the proton flux. The detailed(More)
The ability to selectively control the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into cholinergic neurons in vivo would be an important step toward cell replacement therapy. First, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSCs were induced to differentiate into cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLs) with retinoic acid (RA) pre-induction followed by nerve growth(More)
Radioresistance is a major challenge in prostate cancer (CaP) radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we investigated the role and association of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in CaP radioresistance. We developed three novel CaP radioresistant (RR) cell lines (PC-3RR, DU145RR and LNCaPRR)(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor with diverse biological functions. Signal transduction of GDNF is mediated by binding to a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor GDNFR-alpha and activation of c-RET tyrosine kinase. The recent discovery of a new GDNF homolog neurturin raises the possibility that(More)