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TRAIL, also called Apo2L, is a cytotoxic protein that induces apoptosis of many transformed cell lines but not of normal tissues, even though its death domain-containing receptor, DR4, is expressed on both cell types. An antagonist decoy receptor (designated as TRID for TRAIL receptor without an intracellular domain) that may explain the resistant phenotype(More)
The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway leads to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in mammals and is similar to the Toll pathway in Drosophila: the IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) is homologous to Pelle. Two additional proximal mediators were identified that are required for IL-1R-induced NF-kappaB activation: IRAK-2, a Pelle family(More)
TRAIL (also known as Apo-2L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that rapidly induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines. The human receptor for TRAIL was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF-receptor family (designated death receptor-4, DR4) that contains a cytoplasmic "death domain" capable of engaging the(More)
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and CD95 (also called Fas or APO-1) are cytokine receptors that engage the apoptosis pathway through a region of intracellular homology, designated the "death domain." Another death domain-containing member of the TNFR family, death receptor 3 (DR3), was identified and was shown to induce both apoptosis and(More)
EGFR T790M mutation occurs in half of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with acquired EGFR-TKI (TKI) resistance, based on tumor re-biopsies using an invasive clinical procedure. Here, we dynamically monitored T790M mutation in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) using serial plasma samples from NSCLC patients receiving TKI through Droplet Digital PCR(More)
The ability to selectively control the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into cholinergic neurons in vivo would be an important step toward cell replacement therapy. First, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSCs were induced to differentiate into cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLs) with retinoic acid (RA) pre-induction followed by nerve growth(More)
Radioresistance is a major challenge in prostate cancer (CaP) radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we investigated the role and association of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in CaP radioresistance. We developed three novel CaP radioresistant (RR) cell lines (PC-3RR, DU145RR and LNCaPRR)(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor with diverse biological functions. Signal transduction of GDNF is mediated by binding to a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor GDNFR-alpha and activation of c-RET tyrosine kinase. The recent discovery of a new GDNF homolog neurturin raises the possibility that(More)
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a central role in cancer metastasis and radiotherapy. To develop effective therapeutics to improve radiosensitivity, understanding the possible pathways of radioresistance involved and the effects of a combination of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors with radiotherapy on prostate cancer (CaP) radioresistant cells is needed. We found(More)
A newly identified member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily shows activities associated with osteoclastogenesis inhibition and fibroblast proliferation. This new member, called TR1, was identified from a search of an expressed sequence tag database, and encodes 401 amino acids with a 21-residue signal sequence. Unlike other members of(More)