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Objective: The role of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in human pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis (TB) was assessed by examining its production in clinical samples from patients with active pulmonary TB and tuberculous pleurisy (TBP). Methods: Serum was obtained from 26 active pulmonary TB patients [14 early TB (E-TB), and 12 chronic refractory TB(More)
We demonstrate the microscopic role of oxygen vacancies spatially confined within nanometer inter-spacing (about 1 nm) in BiFeO3, using resonant soft X-ray scattering techniques and soft X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Such vacancy confinements and total number of vacancy are controlled by substitution of Ca(2+) for Bi(3+) cation. We found that by(More)
ZnO thin films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrates using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma-assistedmolecular-beam epitaxy. The effect of the oxygen ECR plasma power on the growth rate, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were studied. It was found that larger ECR power leads to higher growth rate, better(More)
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