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Neural coding for olfactory sensory stimuli has been mapped near completion in the Drosophila first-order center, but little is known in the higher brain centers. Here, we report that the antenna lobe (AL) spatial map is transformed further in the calyx of the mushroom body (MB), an essential olfactory associated learning center, by stereotypic connections(More)
Most animals exhibit innate auditory behaviors driven by genetically hardwired neural circuits. In Drosophila, acoustic information is relayed by Johnston organ neurons from the antenna to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain. Here, by using structural connectivity analysis, we identified five distinct types of auditory(More)
Gap junctions play an important role in the regulation of neuronal metabolism and homeostasis by serving as connections that enable small molecules to pass between cells and synchronize activity between cells. Although recent studies have linked gap junctions to memory formation, it remains unclear how they contribute to this process. Gap junctions are(More)
Memory is initially labile and gradually consolidated over time through new protein synthesis into a long-lasting stable form. Studies of odor-shock associative learning in Drosophila have established the mushroom body (MB) as a key brain structure involved in olfactory long-term memory (LTM) formation. Exactly how early neural activity encoded in thousands(More)
(Abstract) With the fast advance in VLSI technology, smaller, more powerful digital system is available. It requires power supply with higher power density, lower profile and higher efficiency. PWM topologies have been widely used for this application. Unfortunately, hold up time requirement put huge penalties on the performance of these topologies. Also,(More)
Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homolog of(More)
This dissertation is the result of the research and development of a power conditioning system for superconductive magnetic energy storage systems (SMES). The dominant challenge of this research was to develop a power conditioning system that can match slowly varying dc voltages and dc currents on the superconductive magnet side with the ac voltages and ac(More)
(ABSTRACT) Advances in very large scale integration (VLSI) technologies impose challenges for voltage regulator modules (VRM) to deliver high-quality power to modern microprocessors. As an enabling technology, multiphase converters have become the standard practice in VRM industry. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to develop advanced(More)