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Using an anti-NHE1 antibody, we demonstrate the presence of a Na+/H+ exchanger of isoform 1 (NHE1) in the human eccrine sweat duct. A strong staining was observed at the basolateral membrane of the outer cell layer (NHE1basal), at the junction between inner and outer cells layers (NHE1inter), and along the lateral membranes (NHE1later) of all cells of the(More)
We investigated for the presence of a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the human eccrine sweat duct (SD). With the use of immunocytochemistry, an anti-V- ATPase antibody showed a strong staining at the apical membrane and a weaker one in the cytoplasm. Cold preservation followed by rewarming did not alter this staining pattern. With the use of the(More)
Maternal position during induction of intrathecal anaesthesia for caesarean section influences block height and haemodynamic stability. In a randomised study of 90 women presenting for elective caesarean section using combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia, three positions were compared--the Oxford position (group O), the right lateral to supine wedged (group(More)
One of ethanol's actions after acute exposure is anticonvulsant activity whereas withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure increases convulsant activity. An increase in neuronal transmission in the GABAergic pathways from striatum to the substantia nigra (SN) and a decrease in GABAergic transmission from SN to superior colliculus (SC) both appear to play a(More)
In a randomised double-blind trial, postoperative analgesia and side effects of intrathecal morphine 0.1 mg and intrathecal diamorphine 0.25 mg were compared. Sixty women were randomised to receive intrathecal injection of 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine and 12.5 microg fentanyl with either morphine 0.1 mg (group M), or diamorphine 0.25 mg (group D). All(More)
Assessing accurately the pH of axillary eccrine sweat is of vital importance in the antiperspirant industry. Eccrine sweat pH is a critical parameter in determining the effectiveness of antiperspirants; antiperspirant salts dissolve in sweat and diffuse into the sweat glands, where the resultant acidic solution hydrolyses in more alkaline sweat forming an(More)
Sweat and skin surface pH are critical parameters in determining the performance of antiperspirants. The mechanism of action, the so-called 'plug theory' first proposed by Reller and Luedders, involves the expression of eccrine sweat onto the surface of the skin into which the solid antiperspirant salts, typically an aluminium chlorohydrate or zirconium(More)
The presence and cellular distribution of subunits of the V1 sector of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) was investigated in isolated human eccrine sweat glands. In every instance, V-ATPase was located in the cytoplasm and apical membranes of the luminal cells of the reabsorptive duct segment. In the secretory coil, both diffuse and perinuclear(More)
This paper presents a novel approach to analyse design project development demonstrated within a collaborative design case study. We present the limitations of the existing protocol-based design process analysis in analysing real design scenarios. Taking a complete set of regular meeting notes from a design project, the study translated the record of design(More)
It is well established that the evaporation of sweat from the human body surface is the main mechanism by which heat balance is maintained following a rise in body core temperature. Since the introduction of the first brand name antiperspirant in the United States during the early 1900s, antiperspirant products designed to control underarm wetness have(More)
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