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Accounts of statistical learning, both implicit and explicit, often invoke predictive processes as central to learning, yet practically all experiments employ non-predictive measures during training. We argue that the common theoretical assumption of anticipation and prediction needs clearer, more direct evidence for it during learning. We offer a novel(More)
The balance between astrocyte and microglia neuroprotection and neurotoxicity defines the tempo of neuronal dysfunction during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). Astrocytes maintain brain homeostasis and respond actively to brain damage by providing functional and nutritive neuronal support. In HAD, low-level, continuous infection of astrocytes occurs, but(More)
Complex dosing regimens, costs, side effects, biodistribution limitations, and variable drug pharmacokinetic patterns have affected the long-term efficacy of antiretroviral medicines. To address these problems, a nanoparticle indinavir (NP-IDV) formulation packaged into carrier bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) was developed. Drug distribution and(More)
This review will provide an in-depth discussion on the previous development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems (DDS) and discuss original research data that includes the therapeutic enhancement of antiretroviral therapy. The use of nanoparticle DDS will allow practitioners to use drugs to target specific areas of the body. In the treatment of(More)
The effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapies (ART) depends on its ultimate ability to clear reservoirs of continuous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We reasoned that a principal vehicle for viral dissemination, the mononuclear phagocytes could also serve as an ART transporter and as such improve therapeutic indices. A nanoparticle-indinavir(More)
UNLABELLED Sensorimotor adaptation has traditionally been viewed as a purely error-based process. There is, however, growing appreciation for the idea that performance changes in these tasks can arise from the interplay of error-based adaptation with other learning processes. The challenge is to specify constraints on these different processes, elucidating(More)
A septum is not unusual within the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. The right and left forearms of 50 cadavers were dissected. A septum was identified 34% of the time. The septum separated the abductor pollicis longus tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. If the septum was present on one side, it was usually present on the other side. The(More)
Editor's Note: These short, critical reviews of recent papers in the Journal, written exclusively by graduate students or postdoctoral fellows, are intended to summarize the important findings of the paper and provide additional insight and commentary. For more information on the format and purpose of the Journal Club, please see A skilled pianist can(More)
Sensorimotor adaptation is thought to be driven by an error signal based on the difference between the actual and predicted outcome of a motor command. Experiments that study this process often confound variables such as extrinsic reward and task goals with the error that adaptation seeks to minimize. Therefore changes in behavior during these tasks cannot(More)