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Laser irradiation produces bactericidal effects which may be of use in dentistry. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of pulsed NdYAG laser irradiation on bacteria in a laboratory model, in the presence and absence of a black dye, Suomi ink. The experiments were carried out in small capillary tubes containing a measured volume of(More)
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are temperature dependent. We examined the effect of temperature on QUS using Lunar Achilles+ and Hologic Sahara units. In vivo studies were performed in a cadaveric foot and in 5 volunteers. QUS scans were performed in the cadaveric foot, using both machines, at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C. To assess the(More)
This paper describes research into the kinematic robustness of autonomous robotic systems. Kinematic structures typical of those employed in the manipulation and locomotion elements of planetary exploration vehicles are represented using Graph Theory techniques, extended by the novel concept of the Constraints Matrix. This replaces the elements (zeroes and(More)
A lattice of geometries is presented and compared for representing some geometrical aspects of the kinematic design of robot systems and subsystems Three geometries (set theory, topology and projective geometry) are briefly explored in more detail in the context of three geometric configurations in robotics (robot groupings, robot connectivities and robot(More)