J Richard McIntosh

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We have developed a computer software package, IMOD, as a tool for analyzing and viewing three-dimensional biological image data. IMOD is useful for studying and modeling data from tomographic, serial section, and optical section reconstructions. The software allows image data to be visualized by several different methods. Models of the image data can be(More)
The three dimensional organization of microtubules in mitotic spindles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined by computer-aided reconstruction from electron micrographs of serially cross-sectioned spindles. Fifteen spindles ranging in length from 0.6-9.4 microns have been analyzed. Ordered microtubule packing is absent in spindles up to(More)
Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are built on a 9 + 2 array of microtubules plus >250 accessory proteins, forming a biological machine called the axoneme. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of rapidly frozen axonemes from Chlamydomonas and sea urchin sperm, using cryoelectron tomography and image processing to focus on the motor enzyme dynein.(More)
The spindle pole body (SPB) is the major microtubule-organizing center of budding yeast and is the functional equivalent of the centrosome in higher eukaryotic cells. We used fast-frozen, freeze-substituted cells in conjunction with high-voltage electron tomography to study the fine structure of the SPB and the events of early spindle formation. Individual(More)
Mitosis comprises a complex set of overlapping motile events, many of which involve microtubule-dependent motor enzymes. Here we describe a new member of the kinesin superfamily. The protein was originally identified as a spindle antigen by the CHO1 monoclonal antibody and shown to be required for mitotic progression. We have cloned the gene that encodes(More)
Mitotic spindles of Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been studied by EM, using serial cross sections to reconstruct 12 spindles from cells that were ultrarapidly frozen and fixed by freeze substitution. The resulting distributions of microtubules (MTs) have been analyzed by computer. Short spindles contain two kinds of MTs: continuous ones that run from pole(More)
Spindle microtubules (MTs) in PtK1 cells, fixed at stages from metaphase to telophase, have been reconstructed using serial sections, electron microscopy, and computer image processing. We have studied the class of MTs that form an interdigitating system connecting the two spindle poles (interpolar MTs or ipMTs) and their relationship to the spindle MTs(More)
Three-dimensional reconstructions of portions of the Golgi complex from cryofixed, freeze-substituted normal rat kidney cells have been made by dual-axis, high-voltage EM tomography at approximately 7-nm resolution. The reconstruction shown here ( approximately 1 x 1 x 4 microm3) contains two stacks of seven cisternae separated by a noncompact region across(More)
A selective disruption of the mouse CENP-E gene was generated to test how this kinetochore-associated, kinesin-like protein contributes to chromosome segregation. The removal of CENP-E in primary cells produced spindles in which some metaphase chromosomes lay juxtaposed to a spindle pole, despite the absence of microtubules stably bound to their(More)
The "cut" mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are defective in spindle formation and/or chromosome segregation, but they proceed through the cell cycle, resulting in lethality. Analysis of temperature-sensitive alleles of cut11(+) suggests that this gene is required for the formation of a functional bipolar spindle. Defective spindle structure was revealed(More)