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Few pine species develop a seedling grass stage; this growth phase, characterized by strong, carrot-like taproots and a stem-less nature, poses unique challenges during nursery production. Fertilization levels beyond optimum could result in excessive diameter growth that reduces seedling quality as measured by the root bound index (RBI). We grew longleaf(More)
Fall nutrient loading of deciduous forest nursery seedlings is of special interest because of foliage abscission and varied translocation patterns. For non-deciduous seedlings in the nursery, fall fertilization typically can reverse nutrient dilution and possibly increase nutrient reserves; however, this technique has received little attention with(More)
Restoring degraded mesic-montane forests represents a major challenge in maintaining functioning ecosystems throughout the tropics. A key example of this lies in Hawai‘i, where restoring native koa (Acacia koa, A. Gray) forests are a top conservation and forestry priority because of the critical habitat and high-value timber products that they provide.(More)
In Southwestern Spain, multifunctional silvopastoral systems consisting of pastureland and open oak woodlands are known as Dehesas. These, and other similar systems of the Mediterranean basin, are currently threatened by increasing intensive land use. As a consequence, oak regeneration is declining and is in need of adequate management and active(More)
Larch tree species (Larix Mill.) are both ecologically and commercially valuable in their native range and are the focus of many restoration, afforestation, and commercial reforestation efforts in the boreal forests of the northern hemisphere. Land use change, shifting climate, and poor natural regeneration are making it increasingly difficult to establish(More)
In many forests of the world, the summer season (temporal element) brings drought conditions causing low soil moisture in the upper soil profile (spatial element)—a potentially large barrier to seedling establishment. We evaluated the relationship between initial seedling root depth, temporal and spatial changes in soil moisture during drought after(More)
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