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A role for alpha4 integrins in different forms of the multiple sclerosis-like disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been demonstrated, but the individual contributions of alpha4beta1, alpha4beta7, and the related alphaEbeta7 integrin have not been determined. The P7 integrins alpha4beta7 and alphaEbeta7 play a central role in chronic(More)
In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the white matter of the brain and spinal cord, leading to disability and/or paralysis. Myelin, oligodendrocytes and neurons are lost due to the release by immune cells of cytotoxic cytokines, autoantibodies and toxic amounts of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Experimental autoimmune(More)
BACKGROUND Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. Impaired production of H(2)S contributes to the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic livers. The study aimed to investigate the roles of H(2)S in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis and portal(More)
In the study, we investigate whether the expressions of heat shock protein (hsp)60 (a potential autoantigen) and the stress-inducible form of cytoprotector hsp70 are correlated with the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic tree of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. The apoE(-/-) mouse model is advantageous because the(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by localized areas with demyelination. Disease is believed to be an autoimmune disorder mediated by activated immune cells such as T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages/microglia.(More)
PURPOSE To study target-specific delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) using an RNA aptamer against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. METHODS The binding affinity of the EpCAM aptamer to RB primary tumor cells, Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells, and Müller glial cell lines were evaluated with flow cytometry. Formation of physical(More)
BACKGROUND Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) family which is widely expressed by many different cancers. Overexpression of survivin is associated with drug resistance in cancer cells, and reduced patient survival after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Agents that antagonize the function of survivin hold promise for treating many forms(More)
Aptamers are single-stranded structured oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to a wide range of targets ("apatopes") with high affinity and specificity. These nucleic acid ligands, generated from pools of random-sequence by an in vitro selection process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), have now been(More)
BACKGROUND Survivin is a dual functioning protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cancer cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Since the molecular chaperone Hsp90 binds and stabilizes survivin, it is widely believed that down-regulation of survivin is one of the important therapeutic(More)
Due to its severity and increasing epidemiology, arthritis needs no description. There are various forms of arthritis most of which are disabling, very painful, and common. In spite of breakthroughs in the field of drug discovery, there is no cure for arthritis that can eliminate the disease permanently and ease the pain. The present review focuses on some(More)