Twelve nonsmokers, ten ex-smokers, ten deprived smokers (2-3 hours), and ten nondeprived smokers were exposed to a short-term (18-sec) vigilance task and underwent 6 min of biofeedback-assisted alpha amplitude enhancement and suppression training. Cigarette smoking was found to be associated with decreased alpha suppression to the vigilance task. However,… (More)
Recently published research has suggested that, in a pattern masking task, semantic activation caused by the target may continue to exist even though subjects cannot detect the target. The experiments are reassessed as an exceptional case of the more general rule that subjects are able to use residual semantic activation to actually detect targets.… (More)
There is an increased risk of leukemia in Down syndrome (DS) patients, with estimates ranging from 14 to 30 times the incidence rate observed for chromosomally normal children. Furthermore, one type of leukemia, called "transient leukemia" (TL), occurs almost exclusively in DS infants. The basis of the association between DS and leukemia is unknown, but we… (More)
To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes in advanced small cell bladder cancer (aSCBC) patients and compare to those with urothelial carcinoma (UC). Individuals in the National Cancer Data Base with a diagnosis of either nodal (TxN+M0) or distant metastatic (TxNxM1) disease were identified from 1998 to 2010. We assessed the… (More)
Nerve anatomy, terminology, and techniques for nerve restoration are reviewed in sufficient detail to allow the reader to quickly update his or her knowledge in this area. Ideas for future directions of study are presented.