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Serial sections through the thalamus from the fixed right cerebral hemispheres of 15 cases (5 Parkinson's disease, 5 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 5 controls) were used to obtain quantitative estimates of neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangle formation and Lewy body inclusions within individual thalamic nuclei. Severe neuronal loss and tangle formation were(More)
Total muscarinic receptor levels, the levels of the subtypes exhibiting high and low affinity for pirenzepine, and the high- and low-affinity agonist states of the receptor were investigated in hippocampal tissue obtained at autopsy from mentally normal individuals and the following pathological groups: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Down's(More)
Using density gradient centrifugation, three molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase have been distinguished in both normal and senile dementia of Alzheimer-type (SDAT) postmortem neocortex. Whilst the levels of the light and heavy forms were unaltered in SDAT there was a selective and extensive loss of the intermediate form. This form is predominantly(More)
Cholinergic receptors (muscarinic subtypes M1 and M2, and putative nicotinic binding) have been examined in the hippocampus obtained at autopsy from a variety of patients with cognitive disorders (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, Down's Syndrome and alcoholic dementia) and compared with neurologically normal controls and cases of Motor(More)
The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) molecular forms and their solubility characteristics were examined, using density gradient centrifugation, in various regions of the postmortem human CNS. Total AChE activity varied extensively (50-fold) among the regions investigated, being highest in the telencephalic(More)
Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) has recently been reported to be more useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease than physostigmine. A comparison of the effects of these two anticholinesterase agents on in vitro enzyme and receptor activities of human cerebral cortex (obtained at autopsy) revealed similarities in their interactions with(More)
The total levels of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and, more specifically, the distribution of BChE molecular forms were measured in the human neocortex during fetal development. Both the amount of total activity and the abundance of the different molecular forms (G1 and G4) remained relatively constant between gestational ages of 8-22 weeks and were(More)
Loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain is associated with commensurate reductions in cortical acetylcholine-related enzyme activities in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Nerve cell loss from the cholinergic pontine tegmental nuclei also occurs. As the latter nuclei project to the diencephalon, we used frozen tissue from(More)
The measurement of cholinesterase activities in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may ultimately prove to be relevant in the diagnosis of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, studies to date have examined only total enzyme activities. Therefore in the present study we have examined the distribution of the individual molecular forms(More)