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12 Most field erosion studies in agricultural areas provide little information on the probable 13 errors involved. Here, for the first time, we compare the accuracy, time and cost of 14 conventional and new methodologies for gully surveying, and provide a model to 15 estimate the effort required to achieve a specified accuracy. Using a terrestrial LiDAR 16(More)
Copyright and Moral Rights for the articles on this site are retained by the individual authors and/or other copyright owners. For more information on Open Research Online's data policy on reuse of materials please consult the policies page. Abstract Pollution swapping can be defined as the increase in one pollutant as a result of a measure introduced to(More)
The Open University's repository of research publications and other research outputs Contributing understanding of mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment to a review of the efficacy of contemporary agricultural stewardship measures Journal Article (2010). Contributing understanding of mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment to a review of the(More)
The objectives of this study were to examine the variability in mobilization and transport of primary particles and associated total phosphorus (TP) in sediments eroded by overland flow from 13 European arable soils and to consider the empirical support for more process-based alternatives to modeling phosphorus (P) transfers. The 13 soils were subjected to(More)
Plant diversity loss impairs ecosystem functioning, including important effects on soil. Most studies that have explored plant diversity effects belowground, however, have largely focused on biological processes. As such, our understanding of how plant diversity impacts the soil physical environment remains limited, despite the fundamental role soil(More)
National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats(More)
The inland, mountainous marginal areas (land abandoned by farming and colonised by shrubs) of the Iberian Peninsular, Spain, generally receive a higher rainfall than the coastal areas (Lazaro and Rey, 1991) and may store water after cold season (autumn and winter) rainfall. By measuring runoff, change of soil water content and rainfall, this study tests the(More)
It is argued that progress in A.I. research requires reference data concerning cognitive processing. It is proposed that such information relevant to the needs of A.I. can be made available by the controlled study of man/machine interactive problem solving, a paradigm we have called "The Cognitive Test-Bed". The system currently implemented at Reading is(More)
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