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All-optical networks will require low-cost laser sources. In order to reduce the packaging cost and to design a module without optical isolator, the 2.5-Gb/s 300-ps/nm transmission characteristics of 1.3-/spl mu/m distributed-feedback lasers is analyzed in the presence of strong external optical feedback. The penalty degradation when the laser is operating(More)
all-optical networks require low cost and high efficiency laser sources. We demonstrate floorless 2.5 Gbit/s transmission under-19dB return loss and at 85°C for a set of 1.3μm semiconductor DFB lasers with different reflection distances.
Despite the consensus about the importance of chemical speciation in controlling the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of trace elements, detailed speciation studies during laboratory ecotoxicity testing remain scarce, contributing to uncertainty when extrapolating laboratory findings to real field situations in risk assessment. We characterized the(More)
In this study, the presence of anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd) was evaluated in rivers, close to wastewater treatment plant outputs. Then, one site was selected for in situ experiments to assess the bioaccumulation of Gd in the digestive gland and in the gills of two bivalves (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis and Corbicula fluminea). For both organisms, the(More)
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