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BACKGROUND Iron status degrades in female soldiers during military training. Inflammation-mediated up-regulation of hepcidin, a key mediator of iron homeostasis, may be a contributing factor. OBJECTIVE We measured the efficacy of an iron-fortified food product for maintaining iron status in female soldiers during basic combat training (BCT) and examined(More)
BACKGROUND Decrements in iron status have been reported in female soldiers during military training. Diminished iron status adversely affects physical and cognitive performance. OBJECTIVE We wanted to determine whether iron supplementation could prevent decrements in iron status and improve measures of physical performance and cognitive status in female(More)
OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were to use the healthy eating index (HEI) as a tool to characterize diet quality in Soldiers (n=135) during basic combat training (BCT), and to assess the effects of BCT on diet quality by comparing HEI scores before and after the training period. METHODS HEI scores were calculated from a 110-item semiquantitative(More)
Poor iron status affects billions of people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity continues to rise in both developed and developing nations. An association between iron status and obesity has been described in children and adults. The mechanism explaining this relationship remains unknown; however, findings from recent reports suggest that body mass index(More)
Excess weight is associated with negative health outcomes. Meal replacements are effective in promoting favorable body composition changes in civilian populations; however, their efficacy with military service members who have unique lifestyles is unknown. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the Army's(More)
Fe is an essential micronutrient required for optimal cognitive and physical performance. Cross-sectional studies indicate that training degrades Fe status in female military personnel; however, longitudinal studies to measure the direct impact of military training on Fe status and performance have not been conducted. As such, the objective of the present(More)
New approaches to assess energy intake (EI) may have advantages over traditional written methods, but validity of these emerging methodologies must be demonstrated. This exploratory study compared EI obtained using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) and traditional written records with total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water(More)
Eating rate has recently been shown to influence energy intake and appetite during an ad libitum meal, and alter postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY) following a fixed-portion meal. Whether these effects influence satiety, as measured by energy intake at the subsequent meal, is unclear. We manipulated eating rate(More)
Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form and as menaquinones (MKs), a collection of isoprenologues mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Although multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about the presence and distribution of MK in the food(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between obesity and poor iron status have been described in children and adults. Proposed mechanisms for this association implicate a physiologic etiology, suggesting body fat accretion may progressively degrade iron status. However, the relationship between iron status and body composition in non-obese adults remains unclear. (More)