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The development of the inner ear provides a beautiful example of one basic problem in development, that is, to understand how different cell types are generated at specific times and domains throughout embryonic life. The functional unit of the inner ear consists of hair cells, supporting cells and neurons, all deriving from progenitor cells located in the(More)
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important molecule in the brain that is implicated in mood and emotional processes. In vivo, its dynamic release and uptake kinetics are poorly understood due to a lack of analytical techniques for its rapid measurement. Whereas fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fiber microelectrodes is used frequently to monitor(More)
A great deal of attention has recently been focused on a new class of smart materials--so-called left-handed media--that exhibit highly unusual electromagnetic properties and promise new device applications. Left-handed materials require negative permeability micro, an extreme condition that has so far been achieved only for frequencies in the microwave to(More)
The immune synapse (IS) forms as dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells interact in lymph nodes during initiation of adaptive immunity. Factors that contribute to the formation and maintenance of IS stability and function have been mostly studied in T cells, whereas little is known about events occurring during synapse formation in DCs. Here, we show that DCs(More)
Degradation of cytosolic proteins depends largely on the proteasome, and a fraction of the cleavage products are presented as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-bound ligands at the cell surface of antigen presenting cells. Proteolytic pathways accessory to the proteasome contribute to protein turnover, and their up-regulation may complement the(More)
During inner ear development, Notch exhibits two modes of operation: lateral induction, which is associated with prosensory specification, and lateral inhibition, which is involved in hair cell determination. These mechanisms depend respectively on two different ligands, jagged 1 (Jag1) and delta 1 (Dl1), that rely on a common signaling cascade initiated(More)
IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of(More)
The CIAO Study ("Complicated Intra-Abdominal infection Observational" Study) is a multicenter investigation performed in 68 medical institutions throughout Europe over the course of a 6-month observational period (January-June 2012).Patients with either community-acquired or healthcare-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were included(More)