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We consider the effect on the distribution of pairwise differences between mitochondrial DNA sequences of the incorporation into the underlying population genetics model of two particular effects that seem realistic for human populations. The first is that the population size was roughly constant before growing to its current level. The second is that the(More)
BACKGROUND Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity), and to make specific recommendations for(More)
Two commonly used measures of genetic diversity for intraspecies DNA sequence data are based, respectively, on the number of segregating sites, and on the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences. Expressions are derived for their variance in the presence of intragenic recombination for a panmictic population of fixed size that is at neutral(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of patients with haematological malignancies by means of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often accompanied by life threatening infections. With emerging antimicrobial resistance there is an increased need for new agents, with a beneficial safety profile. Therefore we evaluated the safety of the promising new(More)
An international expert panel was convened to deliberate the management of azole-resistant aspergillosis. In culture-positive cases, in vitro susceptibility testing should always be performed if antifungal therapy is intended. Different patterns of resistance are seen, with multi-azole and pan-azole resistance more common than resistance to a single(More)
Aspergillus PCR testing of serum provides technical simplicity but with potentially reduced sensitivity compared to whole-blood testing. With diseases for which screening to exclude disease represents an optimal strategy, sensitivity is paramount. The associated analytical study confirmed that DNA concentrations were greater in plasma than those in serum.(More)
Both incidence of breast cancer and survival have increased in recent years and there is a need to review follow up strategies. This study aims to assess the evidence for benefits of follow-up in different settings for women who have had treatment for early breast cancer. A systematic review to identify key criteria for follow up and then address research(More)
BACKGROUND Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was excluded from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) definitions of invasive fungal disease because of limited standardization and validation. The definitions are being revised. METHODS A systematic literature review was performed to(More)
BACKGROUND Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is still complicated by the occurrence of fever and inflammatory complications attributed to neutropenia and subsequent infectious complications. The role of mucosal barrier injury (MBI) of the intestinal tract therein has received little attention. METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis in 163 SCT(More)
The use of serum or plasma for Aspergillus PCR testing facilitates automated and standardized technology. Recommendations for serum testing are available, and while serum and plasma are regularly considered interchangeable for use in fungal diagnostics, differences in galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) performance have been reported and are(More)