J. Paul Bolam

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Dopamine neurons play a key role in reward-related behaviors. Reward coding theories predict that dopamine neurons will be inhibited by or will not respond to aversive stimuli. Paradoxically, between 3 and 49% of presumed dopamine neurons are excited by aversive stimuli. We found that, in the ventral tegmental area of anesthetized rats, the population of(More)
The subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus network plays a central role in basal ganglia function and dysfunction. To determine whether the relationship between activity in this network and the principal afferent of the basal ganglia, the cortex, is altered in a model of Parkinson's disease, we recorded unit activity in the subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus(More)
Our understanding of the organization of the basal ganglia has advanced markedly over the last 10 years, mainly due to increased knowledge of their anatomical, neurochemical and physiological organization. These developments have led to a unifying model of the functional organization of the basal ganglia in both health and disease. The hypothesis is based(More)
The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological(More)
The firing of neostriatal spiny neurons in response to an excitatory input is modulated and sculpted by a variety of factors. Neostriatal interneurons are phenotypically diverse and have properties that enable them to specifically, but differentially, influence the activity of spiny neurons. Each of the three types of GABAergic interneurons produces a(More)
In the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, a pronounced synchronization of oscillatory activity at beta frequencies (15-30 Hz) accompanies movement difficulties. Abnormal beta oscillations and motor symptoms are concomitantly and acutely suppressed by dopaminergic therapies, suggesting that these inappropriate rhythms might also(More)
One of the functions of the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN) is to relay cortical activity to other basal ganglia structures. The response of the STN to cortical input is shaped by inhibition from the reciprocally connected globus pallidus (GP). To examine the activity in the STN-GP network in relation to cortical activity, we recorded single and(More)
Inappropriately synchronized beta (beta) oscillations (15-30 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) accompany movement difficulties in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The cellular and network substrates underlying these exaggerated beta oscillations are unknown but activity in the external globus pallidus (GP), which forms a candidate pacemaker network(More)
Recent anatomical, physiological and computer modeling studies have revealed that oscillatory processes at the levels of single neurons and neuronal networks in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and external globus pallidus (GPe) are associated with the operation of the basal ganglia in health and in Parkinson's disease (PD). Autonomous oscillation of STN and(More)
Different striatal projection neurons are the origin of a dual organization essential for basal ganglia function. We have defined an analogous division of labor in the external globus pallidus (GPe) of Parkinsonian rats, showing that the distinct temporal activities of two populations of GPe neuron in vivo are underpinned by distinct molecular profiles and(More)